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1/7/2008 Who am I? ã I do (mostly) MEG functional brain imaging of  Brain  auditory processing. Imaging of  ã Now, I am at the EAR Institute, Uni
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  1/7/20081 Brain   Imaging   of    auditory   function Maria   Chait Who   am   I? ã  I   do   (mostly)   MEG   functional   brain   imaging   of    auditory   processing. ã  Now,   I   am   at   the   EAR   Institute,   University   College   &Equipe Audition,   LPP,   Paris   5,   ENS ã  PhD   from   the   University   of    Maryland,   USA o  Cognitive   Neuroscience   of    Language   Laboratory o  Computational   Sensory   Motor   Systems   Laboratory Outline: ã  Introduction   to   brain   imaging   techniques. ã  Spatial   processing ã  Pitch   and   melody ã  Attention ã  Change   detection   and   MMN ã  Speech ã  Brain   asymmetry Some   Slides/Images   are   taken   from: ã  http://psychology.uwo.ca/fmri4newbies/ ã  David   Poeppel ã  Colin   Phillips ã  Wikipedia ã  Istvan Winkler ã  Gazzaniga et   al.   (eds)   ‘Cognitive   Neuroscience’  1/7/20082 Outline: ã  Introduction   to   brain   imaging   techniques. ã  Spatial   processing ã  Pitch   and   melody ã  Attention ã  Change   detection   and   MMN ã  Speech ã  Brain   asymmetry functional   brain   mapping   in   humans ã  Subdural   recording functional   brain   mapping   in   humans ã  Subdural   recording ã  Lesion   study Phineas   Gage,   1848 Before:   responsible,   well ‐ mannered,   well ‐ liked,   efficient   worker,   piousAfter:   capricious,   impulsive,   irreverent,   hypersexual Damage   involved    VMPFC   1/7/20083 functional   brain   mapping   in   humans ã  Subdural   recording ã  Lesion   study ã  Trans ‐ cranial   magnetic   stimulation   (TMS) Non ‐ invasive   method   to   study   brain   circuitry   andconnectivity .  Localized   neural   excitation   is   causedby   weak   electric   currents   induced   in   the   tissue   by   rapidly   changing   magnetic   fields. functional   brain   mapping   in   humans ã  Subdural   recording ã  Lesion   study ã  Trans ‐ cranial   magnetic   stimulation   (TMS) Non ‐ invasive   method   to   study   brain   circuitry   andconnectivity .  Localized   neural   excitation   is   causedby   weak   electric   currents   induced   in   the   tissue   by   rapidly   changing   magnetic   fields. ã  Non   invasive   functional   brain   imaging   methods ã Active   neurons   release   the   neurotransmitter   glutamate   ã Glutamate   opens   NMDA   receptors   on   other   neurons   which   allows   calcium   ions   in ã Calcium   activates   the   production   of    nitric   oxide   ã Nitric   oxide   diffuses   out   and   dilates   smooth   muscle   surrounding   local   arterioles   ã This   allows   more   blood   into   the   local   capillaries   ã More   oxygen   and   glucose   reaches   the   neurons E   =   mc 2 The   First   “Brain   Imaging   Experiment” “[In   Mosso’s   experiments]   the   subject   to   be   observed   lay   on   a   delicately   balanced   table   which   could   tip   downward   either   at   the   head   or   at   the   foot   if    the   weight   of    either   end   were   increased.   The   moment   emotional   or   intellectual   activity   began   in   the   subject,   down   went   the   balance   at   the   head ‐ end,   in   consequence   of    the   redistribution   of    blood   in   his   system.” ‐‐  William   James,   Principles   of    Psychology   (1890)   Italian    physiologist (1846 ‐ 1910) From   http://psychology.uwo.ca/fmri4newbies/  1/7/20084 Physiological   correlates   of    brain   electrical   activity Electrical   activity: ‐ excitatory ‐ inhibitor Metabolic   response: glucose   consumptionoxygen   consumptionFDG   PETAutoradiography   ‐ soma   action   potentialElectrophysiologyMEGEEG Hemodynamic   response: Blood   flowBlood   oxygenationBlood   volumeH 215 O   PETfMRINIRS   Physiological   correlates   of    brain   electrical   activity Electrical   activity: ‐ excitatory ‐ inhibitor Metabolic   response: glucose   consumptionoxygen   consumptionFDG   PETAutoradiography   ‐ soma   action   potentialElectrophysiologyMEGEEG Hemodynamic   response: Blood   flowBlood   oxygenationBlood   volumeH 215 O   PETfMRINIRS Positron   Emission   Tomography   (PET) Positron   Emission   Tomography   (PET) The   system   detects   coincident   pairs   of    gamma   rays   emitted   by   annihilation   of    a   positron ‐ emitting   radioisotope,   which   is   introduced   into   the   body   on   a   metabolically   active   molecule.
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