2017 03 Short Movie Dna

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2017 03 Short Movie Dna
    Researchers store computer operatingsystem and short movie on DNA 2 March 2017  In a study in Science  , researchers Yaniv Erlich and DinaZielinski describe a new coding technique for maximizingthe data-storage capacity of DNA molecules. Credit:New York Genome Center Humanity may soon generate more data than harddrives or magnetic tape can handle, a problem thathas scientists turning to nature's age-old solutionfor information-storage—DNA. In a new study in Science  , a pair of researchers atColumbia University and the New York GenomeCenter (NYGC) show that an algorithm designedfor streaming video on a cellphone can unlockDNA's nearly full storage potential by squeezingmore information into its four base nucleotides.They demonstrate that this technology is alsoextremely reliable.DNA is an ideal storage medium because it's ultra-compact and can last hundreds of thousands ofyears if kept in a cool, dry place, as demonstratedby the recent recovery of DNA from the bones of a430,000-year-old human ancestor found in a cavein Spain. DNA won't degrade over time like cassette tapesand CDs, and it won't become obsolete—if it does,we have bigger problems, said study coauthorYaniv Erlich, a computer science professor atColumbia Engineering, a member of Columbia'sData Science Institute, and a core member of theNYGC.Erlich and his colleague Dina Zielinski, anassociate scientist at NYGC, chose six files toencode, or write, into DNA: a full computeroperating system, an 1895 French film, Arrival of atrain at La Ciotat, a $50 Amazon gift card, acomputer virus, a Pioneer plaque and a 1948 studyby information theorist Claude Shannon.They compressed the files into a master file, andthen split the data into short strings of binary codemade up of ones and zeros. Using an erasure-correcting algorithm called fountain codes, theyrandomly packaged the strings into so-calleddroplets, and mapped the ones and zeros in eachdroplet to the four nucleotide bases in DNA: A, G, Cand T. The algorithm deleted letter combinationsknown to create errors, and added a barcode toeach droplet to help reassemble the files later.In all, they generated a digital list of 72,000 DNAstrands, each 200 bases long, and sent it in a textfile to a San Francisco DNA-synthesis startup,Twist Bioscience, that specializes in turning digitaldata into biological data. Two weeks later, theyreceived a vial holding a speck of DNA molecules.To retrieve their files, they used modernsequencing technology to read the DNA strands,followed by software to translate the genetic codeback into binary. They recovered their files withzero errors, the study reports. (In this short demo,Erlich opens his archived operating system on avirtual machine and plays a game of Minesweeperto celebrate.)They also demonstrated that a virtually unlimitednumber of copies of the files could be created withtheir coding technique by multiplying their DNA  1 / 3    sample through polymerase chain reaction (PCR),and that those copies, and even copies of theircopies, and so on, could be recovered error-free.Finally, the researchers show that their codingstrategy packs 215 petabytes of data on a singlegram of DNA—100 times more than methodspublished by pioneering researchers GeorgeChurch at Harvard, and Nick Goldman and EwanBirney at the European Bioinformatics Institute. We believe this is the highest-density data-storagedevice ever created, said Erlich.The capacity of DNA data-storage is theoreticallylimited to two binary digits for each nucleotide, butthe biological constraints of DNA itself and the needto include redundant information to reassemble andread the fragments later reduces its capacity to 1.8binary digits per nucleotide base.The team's insight was to apply fountain codes, atechnique Erlich remembered from graduateschool, to make the reading and writing processmore efficient. With their DNA Fountain technique,Erlich and Zielinski pack an average of 1.6 bits intoeach base nucleotide. That's at least 60 percentmore data than previously published methods, andclose to the 1.8-bit limit.Cost still remains a barrier. The researchers spent$7,000 to synthesize the DNA they used to archivetheir 2 megabytes of data, and another $2,000 toread it. Though the price of DNA sequencing hasfallen exponentially, there may not be the samedemand for DNA synthesis, says Sri Kosuri, abiochemistry professor at UCLA who was notinvolved in the study. Investors may not be willingto risk tons of money to bring costs down, he said.But the price of DNA synthesis can be vastlyreduced if lower-quality molecules are produced,and coding strategies like DNA Fountain are usedto fix molecular errors, says Erlich. We can domore of the heavy lifting on the computer to takethe burden off time-intensive molecular coding, hesaid. More information:   DNA Fountain enables arobust and efficient storage architecture, Science  , science.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.aa j2038 Provided by Columbia University School ofEngineering and Applied Science  2 / 3    APA citation: Researchers store computer operating system and short movie on DNA (2017, March 2)retrieved 3 March 2017 from https://phys.org/news/2017-03-short-movie-dna.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Pwred byTCPD wwwtcpdf.org)  3 / 3
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