A Modified Emergency Market Mapping Analysis and Protection Analysis: Smoked fish and dried red pepper income market systems Diffa Region, Eastern Niger | Boko Haram

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Almost seven years of violent conflict in the Lake Chad Basin region of West Africa – involving Boko Haram and military operations to counter them – has led to a devastating humanitarian crisis. Originating in northeast Nigeria, the conflict has now spread across borders into Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The people of the Lake Chad Basin region are some of the poorest in the world. Even under normal circumstances they suffer from high levels of hunger and malnutrition. Over the last two years, the conflict has led to mass forced displacements and population movements, uprooting people from their homes and cutting them off from their livelihoods and sources of income, exacerbating an already dire situation. This report uses the Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) methodology combined with protection risk analysis to capture aspects of the situation in the Diffa region of Niger and to offer a view of how vulnerable populations are accessing income and the risks associated with that.
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  A Modified Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) and Protection Analysis Smoked fish and dried red pepper income market systems Diffa Region, Eastern Niger Full report, December 2016Corrie Sissons and Clotilde Lappartient  A Modified Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) and Protection Analysis Smoked fish and dried red pepper income market systemsDiffa Region, Eastern Niger 2 Authors and Acknowledgements This report was written and compiled by Corrie Sissons (Oxfam Emergency Food Security and Vulnerable Livelihoods (EFSVL) Advisor) and Clotilde Lappartient (Oxfam Protection Advisor). Oxfam wishes to thank its partner Alternatives Espaces Citoyens (AEC) for their support and input to the fieldwork in particular. We are also grateful for the dedication and hard work of the two teams in Diffa, comprising Mahamane Salissou, Kanta Djadji, Moustapha Kiari, Abarchi Hammisou, Marah Mamadou and Grah Elhadj Warouma. List of Acronyms GAM Global Acute ManutritionIDP Internally displaced personIPC Integrated Food Security Phase ClassificationEMMA Emergency Market Mapping and AnalysisAEC Alternatives Espaces Citoyens EFSVL Emergency Food Security and Vulnerable LivelihoodsFCFA (XOF) Franc Communauté Financière AfricaineGBV Gender based violencePRODEBALT Programme de Développement Durable du Lac TchadSGBV Sexual gender based violenceWASH Water, sanitation and hygiene promotion Front cover picture: Internally displaced woman, N’Goui Koura village, Diffa Region. Photo: Corrie Sissons/Oxfam    A Modified Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) and Protection Analysis Smoked fish and dried red pepper income market systemsDiffa Region, Eastern Niger 3 Table of Contents Section 1. Context 4Section 2. Methodology 6 2.1 Objectives of the study 62.2 Modifying the EMMA to include protection elements 7 Section 3. Scope of the assessment 9 3.1. Baseline scenario 93.2. Geographical focus 103.3. Target population – characteristics 113.4. Seasonal calendar for Diffa Region 13 Section 4. Market systems 14 4.1. Critical market systems 144.2. Analytical scope 14 Section 5. The smoked fish market system: findings 15 5.1. Reference market situation (market chain, environment, infrastructure and protection risks and vulnerabilities) 155.2. Emergency-affected situation (market chain, environment, infrastructure and protection risks and vulnerabilities) 195.3. Gap analysis 225.4. Recommendations 25 Section 6. The Dried Red Pepper market system 27 6.1. Reference market situation (market chain, environment, infrastructure and protection risks and vulnerabilities) 276.2. Emergency-affected situation (market chain, environment, infrastructure and protection risks and vulnerabilities) 306.3. Gap analysis 346.4. Recommendations 37 7. Conclusions 40Annex 1. Bibliography 41Annex 2. List of actors interviewed 42Annex 3. Overview of protection threats and vulnerabilities due to income market disruption 43  A Modified Emergency Market Mapping Analysis (EMMA) and Protection Analysis Smoked fish and dried red pepper income market systemsDiffa Region, Eastern Niger 4 Section 1: ContexT Almost seven years of violent conflict involving Boko Haram and military operations to counter them has led to a devastating humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad Basin Region of West Africa. Originating in North East Nigeria, the conflict has now spread across borders into Niger, Chad and Cameroon. Since the conflict began, over 20,000 people have been killed, Boko Haram has kidnapped ten thousand boys in the past years, 1  and an estimated 2000 women and girls have been abducted. Large numbers of men and boys have also been arrested and detained by security forces. There have been alarming levels of sexual violence, human rights abuses committed by all sides, and forced recruitment, even of young children. The people in the Lake Chad Basin region are some of the poorest in the world and, even under normal circumstances, suffer from high levels of hunger and malnutrition. The spreading of the conflict into neighbouring countries over the last two years has led to mass forced displacements and population movements, uprooting people from their homes, and cutting people off from their livelihoods and sources of income, exacerbating an already dire situation. Across the region the Boko Haram conflict and the military operations to counter them have forced more than 2.6 million people to flee their homes and abandon farms and farmland. In some conflict-affected areas in the region, particularly Borno in Nigeria, this is the third year without a harvest and food prices are soaring in the markets. Insecurity is also preventing people from engaging in key livelihood activities and has disrupted cross-border trade. In the Diffa region, in the easternmost corner of Niger, bordering Nigeria and Chad, an estimated 250,000 2 people are living in vast spontaneous settlements and some small camps, many having fled their homes and abandoned everything, including their farmland. Given that the normal population in the Diffa region is around 489,531 people (2011 census), 3 the arrival of IDPs and refugees is causing an enormous strain on already scarce resources. The region is currently at Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) phase 3 (crisis), projected until at least January 2017, adding to chronic seasonal food insecurity with malnutrition levels which regularly exceed the 15 percent Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) emergency threshold. Lake Chad NIGER 109,000 NIGERIA 1,950,000 CAMEROON 115,000 CHAD 112,000 DiffaYobeBornoAdamawaGombeFar- NorthMayo Kebbi EstLac   Affected states Total displaced: 2.286 million Map 1 Lake Chad Basin region, NOVember 2016
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