Assessing Oxfam's Contribution to Changes in Social Norms in VAWG/GBV Programming Globally | Evaluation

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This document focuses on assessing the outcome of Gender Justice Change Goal: Violence against women is significantly less socially accepted and prevalent by 2019. The key question that frames this evaluation is: how has Oxfam contributed to changing cultural norms and ultimately behaviours to prevent GBV?
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  ASSESSING OXFAM’S CONTRIBUTION TO CHANGES IN SOCIAL NORMS IN VAWG/GBV PROGRAMMING GLOBALLY ALEXANDRA PITTMAN, LAURA HAYLOCK        ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CSOs Civil Society Organization GBV Gender-based violence GJ Gender Justice IRB Institutional Review Board KH Knowledge Hub KAP Knowledge, Attitude, Practice MENA Middle East and North Africa MEL Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning OPT Occupied Palestine Territories OECD DAC Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development- Develop-ment Assistance Committee OSP Oxfam’s Strategic Plan  PWDVA Protection on Women from Domestic Violence Act TOC Theory of Change USD United States Dollar VAWG Violence Against Women and Girls WHO World Health Organization  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND Ending gender-based violence (GBV) and violence against women and girls (VAWG) is an integral part of Oxfam’s vision to see a safe and just world where women and girls gain power over   every aspect of their lives and live free from violence. Oxfam believes that, of the diverse causes of VAWG/GBV, the root cause is unequal gender and power relations. Recognizing that VAWG/GBV is a worldwide and gross violation of human rights and one of the most persistent indicators of gender inequality and discrimination, Oxfam has prioritized ending violence by highlighting the reduction of the social acceptance and incidence of VAWG/GBV as a key priority and goal of Oxfam’s strategic plan  (OSP) (2013-19). Oxfam has a Global Program that aims to end VAWG/GBV in more than 50 countries internationally. Preventative interventions are central to Oxfam’s global program, with all 50 countries included in our global program working to tackle the root causes of VAWG/GBV. These 50 countries make up the vibrant, dynamic knowledge network of Oxfam’s Knowledge Hub to end VAWG/GBV. The key mandate of the Knowledge Hub is to help strengthen and improve this knowledge network and the programs housed with it. This following document will focus on assessing the ending Violence against Women and Girls/Gender Based Violence (VAWG/GBV) outcome of Gender Justice Change Goal: Violence against women is significantly less socially acceptable and prevalent by 2019. The key evaluation question that was selected and frames this evaluation is: How has Oxfam contributed to changing cultural norms and ultimately behaviours to prevent GBV? In order to effectively respond to this question, a meta-evaluation was conducted that examined the following 10 questions: What are the levels, timeframes and sectors that are most common in Oxfam’s work to change attitudes, norms and behaviours? What theories of change are most common in this area of work? What are the guiding principles of this work? What is the reach of this change? What strategies are Oxfam and partners using to create this change? What are the key outcomes that Oxfam and partners are contributing to in changing negative attitudes, norms and behaviours to end VAWG/GBV? What is Oxfam’s added val ue in this work? What is the quality of Oxfam’s evaluations?   What have we learned from Oxfam’s evaluations? What recommendations are necessary to strengthen social norm change in the future and achieve Oxfam’s change goal in 2019? METHODOLOGY: In order to assess Oxfam’s global performance in its OSP ambitions, and in the absence of a stand -alone evaluation of a representative sample of Oxfam programs, the meta-evaluation relied on project evaluations. The meta-evaluation is based on 13 program and project evaluations that were conducted between 2013 and 2015. The meta-evaluation employed an in-depth, content and thematic analysis to make sense of the patterns and themes emerging from the 13 final evaluations. The qualitative analysis for this meta- evaluation used both deductive and inductive analyses, and drew from the Knowledge Hub’s (KH) document, Conceptual Framework on Oxfam’s Approach to Changing Negative Attitudes, social norms and behaviours to end Violence Against Women and Girls/Gender Based Violence (hereafter referred to as the Conceptual framework), as the primary frame of reference for coding categories. In addition, an inductive, open-ended coding process was employed, which allowed themes, patterns and other categories to naturally emerge and be coded alongside the data being collected for the Conceptual Framework. All data from the 13 final evaluations was coded using a program called Impact Mapper, an online qualitative software tool that allows for the easy tracking and visualization of patterns, themes, outcomes and trends in social change.
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