BIOLOGY REVISION.doc | Atrium (Heart)

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TOPIC 1- LIFESTYLE, HEALTH & RISK WATER H-Bonds creates adhesive affect- high mp/bp relative to similar sized molecules Excellent solvent- dipole allows ionic substances to be dissolved- polar substances also dissolve Carries non-polar substances as COLLOIDS (solute particles bigger than solvent) Insoluble particles form EMULSIONS (droplets of one liquid held in another) or SUSPENSIONS – (solid + liquid particles separate out if constantly moved) High surface tension- like covered b
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   TOPIC 1- LIFESTYLE, HEALTH & RISK  WATER H-Bonds creates adhesie a!ect- hi h #$%$ re'atie to si#i'ar si(ed #o'ec)'esE*ce''ent so'ent- di$o'e a''o+s ionic s)stances to e disso'ed- $o'ar s)stances a'so disso'eCarries non-$o'ar s)stances as COLLOIS so')te $artic'es i er than so'ent. Inso')'e $artic'es /or# E0LSIO2S dro$'ets o/ one 'i3)id he'd in another. orSSPE2SIO2S 4 so'id 5 'i3)id $artic'es se$arate o)t i/ constant'6 #oed.Hi h s)r/ace tension- 'i7e coered 6 s7in- no interact et+een air and +ater itse'/-h onds $)'' do+n and to ether8A#$hoteric- acts as Ph )!er as is $roton donor H5 or acce$tor OH-Hi h 'atent heat o/ ea$oration- ea$oration ta7es a 'ot o/ ener 6 so coo's as ea$orates Ther#a''6 sta'e d)e to hi h s$eci9c heat ca$acit6Creates cohesion i#$ortant in $'ants section T:. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - hi her #etao'ic rate o/ #an6 #a##a's etc #eans that di!)sion is too s'o+ to #eet needs, as SA%; ratio is s#a''- th)s #ass trans$ort s6ste#s are )sed to#a*i#ise e<cienc68 In so#e ani#a's their needs are #et 6 si#$'e di!)sion s)ch as a#oea +ith a 'ar e SA%; ratio di!)sion is e<cient and e!ectie8 BLOOD P'as#a- #ain co#$onent 'ar e'6 +ater and disso'ed s)stancesEr6throc6tes- red 'ood ce''s- iconcae discs no n)c'e)s #ore roo# /or hae#o 'oin and O=Le)7oc6tes- +hite 'ood ce''s- can s3)ee(e and chan e sha$e, hae n)c'e)s 5co'o)r'ess c6to$'as#P'ate'ets- /ra #ents o/ other ce''s, ino'ed in c'ot /or#ation8 BLOOD VESSELS Arteries - 'ood a+a6 /ro# heart- to ')n s > $)'#onar6 arter6 to e o*6 enated- to od6 ia aorta or head%nec7 ia aorta and carotid arteries8 S#a'' ')#en, 'ar e a#o)nt co''a en and e'astic 9res to a''o+ to ret)rn to sha$e +hen e*$ands8 2o a'es, s#ooth endothe'ia' 'inin - $reent /riction8Arteries #ost at ris7 /ro# da#a e d)e to hi h 'ood $ress)re and recoi'8 Veins - 'ood ac7 to+ards heart- $)'#onar6 ein /ro# ')n s o*6 enated.- in/erior ena caa and s)$erior ena caa /ro# od68 Hae a'es to $reent ac7 ?o+ as is at 'o+er $ress)re than arteries8 Lar e ')#en to act as 'ood reseroir and so#e )t 'ess e'astic and co''a en 9res8 Capillaries - net+or7 that 'in7s arteries and eins, 1 ce'' thic7 and er6 thin, RBC $ass thro) h, n)trients o)t into net+or7 and +aste CO= etc. ret)rned to red 'ood ce''8 B'ood $ress)re 'o+ thro) h net+or7- 'ood ?o+s /ro# arteries- arterio'es to ca$i''ar6 net+or7 to en)'es and eins8 THE HEART  S)$erior ;ena Caa 4 ein-carries deo*6 enated 'ood /ro# the )$$er od6 tori ht atri)#8 P)'#onar6 ;eins 4carries 'ood /ro# the ')n s to the 'e/t atri)# o/ the heartRi ht Atri)# 4'ood co''ection cha#er o/ the heart, it has a thin +a''ed str)ct)re Le/t Atri)# 4 this receies o*6 enated 'ood /ro# the 'e/t and ri ht $)'#onar6 eins8 Ri ht ;entric'e 4 this receies 'ood /ro#the ri ht atri)# and $)#$s it in to the$)'#onar6 arter68 In/erior ;ena Caa - carries de-o*6 enated 'ood /ro# the 'o+er od6into the ri ht atri)# o/ the heart8 Aorta 4'ar est arter6 in the od6 -rin so*6 enated 'ood to a'' $arts o/ the od6in the s6ste#ic circ)'ation8 Cardiac 0)sc'e 4 these #)sc'e ce''s $)sh'ood /ro# the atria to the entric'es tothe 'ood esse's o/ the circ)'ator6s6ste#8P)'#onar6 Arteries 4 this carries 'ood /ro# the heart the ')n s8@hen the #)sc'es o/ the atria +a''s contract it /orces the re#ainin 'ood in tothe entric'es8 The +a''s o/ the entric'es contract as the6 9'' +ith 'ood, the increased 'ood $ress)re c'oses the atrioentric)'ar a'es $reentin ac7?o+ o/ 'ood in to the atria8 As the atrioentric)'ar a'es are c'osed the $ress)re increases o$enin the se#i ')nar a'es and $)shin the 'ood in to the $)'#onar6 arter6 and aorta8 ã Atrioentric)'ar ;a'es 4 these are 'ocatedet+een the atri)# and the entric'e on oth sides8 The6$reent ac7?o+ o/ 'ood in to the atria as the c'os)re o/ these a'es ens)res that the 'ood +i'' ?o+ in to the$)'#onar6 arter6 or aorta8 ã Se#i-L)nar ;a'es 4 these are in the aorta and$)'#onar6 arter6 , the6 $reent ac7?o+ o/ 'ood in tothe entric'es8 ã  The sinoatria' to$ o/ the ri ht atri)#-createre )'ar +aes o/ e'ectrica' actiit6 to atria a''o+in contraction- $reent s$readin 6 ins)'atin 9ro)stiss)e CARDIAC CYCLE iasto'e 5 s6sto'e8iasto'e- atria % entric'es re'a*- 'ood into atri)#- atrioentric)'ar a'es o$en- 'ood into entric'es- se#i ')nar is c'osed8S6sto'e- entric'es contract- atrioentric)'ar c'oses, se#i ')nar o$ens 'ood to aorta or $)'#onar6 arter6I2TRI2SIC RHYTH0ear'6 e#r6o ce''s e in to rh6th#ica''6 contract 'on e/ore #)sc'e /or#s- ia e'ectrica' e*citation at $#8CARIO;ASCLAR CE2TER I2 BRAI2  Contro's heart- as neres s$eed the heart or s'o+ do+n- de$endant on CO= 'ee's in 'ood- nere contro' $roides 3)ic7 reactions- hor#ones a'so a!ect heart rate )t enera''6 s'o+er8CORO2ARY ARTERIESFeed #6ocardia' heart #)sc'e. 4 aoe aortic a'e /ro# aorta so receied strai ht a+a6 and 3)ic7'68 BLOOD PRESSURE 0eas)red 6 SPHY0O0A2O0ETER a)to#atic one or c)! 5 #erc)r6 #ano#eter and stethosco$e.BP > s6sto'ic $ % diasto'ic $ e8 8 1=%DH6$ertension- hi h 'ood $ress)re 1:%. can e ca)sed 6 narro+ed arteries.H6$otension- 'o+ 'ood $ress)re %. can e ca)sed 6 +ea7 heart. DRUGS FOR LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE ANTIHYPERTENSIVES Di!reti s  increased o')#e o/ )rine- 'o+er 'ood o')#e- 'o+er 'ood $ress)re SE na)sea. Beta #l$ %ers - 'oc7 hearts res$onse to hor#ones s)ch as adrena'ine that s$eed heart )$ SE diaetes 'in7. S&'pat(eti Ner)e In(i#it$rs - 'oc7 s6#$athetic neres- these et arteriesto constrict, 6 'oc7in 7ee$s arteries di'ated so 'ood $ress)re is 7e$t 'o+ SE co) h. ACE In(i#it$rs - hor#one an iotensin ca)ses 'ood esse's to constrict so inhiitors $reent these ein #ade th)s esse's are not constricted8 SE i#$aired 7idne6 /)nction. Treat#ent o/ C; ino'ed anti(&pertensi)es  'o+er $., red)cin o/ cho'estero'  statins ., anti $a*!lants - 'ess 'i7e'6 athero#a to /or#., and platelet in(i#it$rsStatins -'oc7 en(6#e in 'ier that #a7es cho'estero' SE na)sea, consti$ationor rare in?a##ation reactions- can enco)ra e a not hea'th6 diet, create attit)de that no need to eat +e'' as statins $reent cho'estero' )i'd )$. Anti $a*!lants - e8 8 @ar/arin, $reent ris7 o/ c'ot /or#ation 6 thinnin 'ood- SE )ncontro''ed 'eedin . Platelet in(i#it$rs 4 e8 8 As$irin- #a7es $'ate'ets 'ess Gstic76 4 SE irritation to sto#ach 'inin ca)se sto#ach 'eedin . CVD CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Res)'ts /ro# coronar6 arteries narro+ed +ith /att6 de$osits- narro+in red)ces ?o+ and can stare heart #)sc'e o/ o*6 en- a'so one 'ood c'ot thro#osis. increases 'i7e'ihood o/ anotherB'ood c'ottin as a $rocess is i#$ortant- $reents 'eedin to death and entrance o/ $atho ens8B)t c'ot in esse's is the $ro'e#-a#a e to esse' - exposes collagen fbres- platelets rom blood stick- the  platelets release thromboplastin- in presence o calcium ions and vitamin K thromboplastin converts prothrombin to thrombin- this converts soluble  fbrinogen to insoluble fbrin that creates a mesh-like network o fbres trapping cells + debris to = a clot. Cascade >a#a e to 'inin - increased 'i7e'ihood o/ c'ot- i/ c'ot occ)rs, in?a##ator6 res$onse- cho'estero' )i'ds )$ > athero#a- )i'd )$ o/ ca'ci)#, sa'ts and $'ate'ets > $'a3)e /or#ation- narro+s arter6- raises 'ood $ress)re- increased 'i7e'ihood o/ da#a e8C'ot can 'ead to ane)r6s#, $'a3)e ca)ses 'ood )i'd )$ ehind- arter6 )' es, can r)$t)re arter6Artherosc'erosis- $rocess as aoe )t ca'ci)# $'a3)e ca)ses 'oss o/ e'asticit6 in arter6 +a''s- 'ess a'e to co$e +ith recoi' da#a e #ore 'i7e'68@hat increases 'i7e'ihood o/ arter6 da#a e and +h6-S#o7in - nicotine inta7e res)'ts in adrena'ine $rod)ction- heart rate /aster, BPincreases-to*ins in s#o7e irritate endothe'ia' 'inin , reater ris7 o/ da#a eOesit6- reater strain on heart, a'so association et+een oesit6 and raised 'ood $ress)re% had dietInactiit6- e*ercise #a7es heart stron er so can $)#$ #ore 'ood +ith each eat8Hi h cho'estero'% /att6 died- 'ar e a#o)nts cho'estero' in 'ood strea# increases ris7 o/ c'otFa#i'6 histor6- s) ested enetic 'in7sHi h B'ood Press)re8 A e- +ith a ein e'asticit6 and +idth o/ arteries deterioratesender- oestro en in +o#en o!ers so#e $rotection /ro# C; Treat#ents- anticoa )'ants, antih6$ertensies, statins see aoe.Ris7 can e red)ced 6 chan in 'i/est6'e choices s)ch as s#o7in or ad diet Ris%  - can e act)a', as s) ested 6 st)dies, or $erceied-that is a'tered 6 an indiid)a's $ersona' e*$eriences and $erce$tions8 Ris7 is the $roai'it6 o/ the occ)rrence o/ a )n+anted eent or o)tco#e- )t corre'ation does not i#$'6 ca)sation8 E$ide#io'o ists cond)ct research to access ris7 /actors T6$es o/ st)d6 > C$($rt - #an6 $eo$'e, 'on ti#e $eriod, cate orised accordin to +ho has% doesnt hae condition- ris7 /actors accessed e8 8 0)nster Heart St)d6 see e'o+. in cho'estero'8 Case $ntr$l st!+ies - ro)$ +ith condition and contro' ro)$- $ast histor6 researched- i#$ortant to #atch case%contro' ro)$s in ter#s o/ a e% ender- inde$endent aria'es are contro''edood st)d6- a'id% re'ia'e data, re$resentatie o/ +ho'e $o$)'ation- 'ac7 ias- aria'es contro''ed as #)ch as $ossi'e- standardised #eas)re#ent% other techni3)es- sa#$'e si(e- +hi'e 'ar e sa#$'e si(e is enera''6 est- i/ on'6 tin6  hae disease s#a'' ro)$ indiid)a's s)!erin est re$resentatie than 'ar e sa#$'e +ith one or t+o s)!erers8
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