BIOLOGY REVISION.doc | Atrium (Heart)

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 11
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report



Views: 3 | Pages: 11

Extension: DOC | Download: 0

Related documents
TOPIC 1- LIFESTYLE, HEALTH & RISK WATER H-Bonds creates adhesive affect- high mp/bp relative to similar sized molecules Excellent solvent- dipole allows ionic substances to be dissolved- polar substances also dissolve Carries non-polar substances as COLLOIDS (solute particles bigger than solvent) Insoluble particles form EMULSIONS (droplets of one liquid held in another) or SUSPENSIONS – (solid + liquid particles separate out if constantly moved) High surface tension- like covered b
   TOPIC 1- LIFESTYLE, HEALTH & RISK  WATER H-Bonds creates adhesie a!ect- hi h #$%$ re'atie to si#i'ar si(ed #o'ec)'esE*ce''ent so'ent- di$o'e a''o+s ionic s)stances to e disso'ed- $o'ar s)stances a'so disso'eCarries non-$o'ar s)stances as COLLOIS so')te $artic'es i er than so'ent. Inso')'e $artic'es /or# E0LSIO2S dro$'ets o/ one 'i3)id he'd in another. orSSPE2SIO2S 4 so'id 5 'i3)id $artic'es se$arate o)t i/ constant'6 #oed.Hi h s)r/ace tension- 'i7e coered 6 s7in- no interact et+een air and +ater itse'/-h onds $)'' do+n and to ether8A#$hoteric- acts as Ph )!er as is $roton donor H5 or acce$tor OH-Hi h 'atent heat o/ ea$oration- ea$oration ta7es a 'ot o/ ener 6 so coo's as ea$orates Ther#a''6 sta'e d)e to hi h s$eci9c heat ca$acit6Creates cohesion i#$ortant in $'ants section T:. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - hi her #etao'ic rate o/ #an6 #a##a's etc #eans that di!)sion is too s'o+ to #eet needs, as SA%; ratio is s#a''- th)s #ass trans$ort s6ste#s are )sed to#a*i#ise e<cienc68 In so#e ani#a's their needs are #et 6 si#$'e di!)sion s)ch as a#oea +ith a 'ar e SA%; ratio di!)sion is e<cient and e!ectie8 BLOOD P'as#a- #ain co#$onent 'ar e'6 +ater and disso'ed s)stancesEr6throc6tes- red 'ood ce''s- iconcae discs no n)c'e)s #ore roo# /or hae#o 'oin and O=Le)7oc6tes- +hite 'ood ce''s- can s3)ee(e and chan e sha$e, hae n)c'e)s 5co'o)r'ess c6to$'as#P'ate'ets- /ra #ents o/ other ce''s, ino'ed in c'ot /or#ation8 BLOOD VESSELS Arteries - 'ood a+a6 /ro# heart- to ')n s > $)'#onar6 arter6 to e o*6 enated- to od6 ia aorta or head%nec7 ia aorta and carotid arteries8 S#a'' ')#en, 'ar e a#o)nt co''a en and e'astic 9res to a''o+ to ret)rn to sha$e +hen e*$ands8 2o a'es, s#ooth endothe'ia' 'inin - $reent /riction8Arteries #ost at ris7 /ro# da#a e d)e to hi h 'ood $ress)re and recoi'8 Veins - 'ood ac7 to+ards heart- $)'#onar6 ein /ro# ')n s o*6 enated.- in/erior ena caa and s)$erior ena caa /ro# od68 Hae a'es to $reent ac7 ?o+ as is at 'o+er $ress)re than arteries8 Lar e ')#en to act as 'ood reseroir and so#e )t 'ess e'astic and co''a en 9res8 Capillaries - net+or7 that 'in7s arteries and eins, 1 ce'' thic7 and er6 thin, RBC $ass thro) h, n)trients o)t into net+or7 and +aste CO= etc. ret)rned to red 'ood ce''8 B'ood $ress)re 'o+ thro) h net+or7- 'ood ?o+s /ro# arteries- arterio'es to ca$i''ar6 net+or7 to en)'es and eins8 THE HEART  S)$erior ;ena Caa 4 ein-carries deo*6 enated 'ood /ro# the )$$er od6 tori ht atri)#8 P)'#onar6 ;eins 4carries 'ood /ro# the ')n s to the 'e/t atri)# o/ the heartRi ht Atri)# 4'ood co''ection cha#er o/ the heart, it has a thin +a''ed str)ct)re Le/t Atri)# 4 this receies o*6 enated 'ood /ro# the 'e/t and ri ht $)'#onar6 eins8 Ri ht ;entric'e 4 this receies 'ood /ro#the ri ht atri)# and $)#$s it in to the$)'#onar6 arter68 In/erior ;ena Caa - carries de-o*6 enated 'ood /ro# the 'o+er od6into the ri ht atri)# o/ the heart8 Aorta 4'ar est arter6 in the od6 -rin so*6 enated 'ood to a'' $arts o/ the od6in the s6ste#ic circ)'ation8 Cardiac 0)sc'e 4 these #)sc'e ce''s $)sh'ood /ro# the atria to the entric'es tothe 'ood esse's o/ the circ)'ator6s6ste#8P)'#onar6 Arteries 4 this carries 'ood /ro# the heart the ')n s8@hen the #)sc'es o/ the atria +a''s contract it /orces the re#ainin 'ood in tothe entric'es8 The +a''s o/ the entric'es contract as the6 9'' +ith 'ood, the increased 'ood $ress)re c'oses the atrioentric)'ar a'es $reentin ac7?o+ o/ 'ood in to the atria8 As the atrioentric)'ar a'es are c'osed the $ress)re increases o$enin the se#i ')nar a'es and $)shin the 'ood in to the $)'#onar6 arter6 and aorta8 ã Atrioentric)'ar ;a'es 4 these are 'ocatedet+een the atri)# and the entric'e on oth sides8 The6$reent ac7?o+ o/ 'ood in to the atria as the c'os)re o/ these a'es ens)res that the 'ood +i'' ?o+ in to the$)'#onar6 arter6 or aorta8 ã Se#i-L)nar ;a'es 4 these are in the aorta and$)'#onar6 arter6 , the6 $reent ac7?o+ o/ 'ood in tothe entric'es8 ã  The sinoatria' to$ o/ the ri ht atri)#-createre )'ar +aes o/ e'ectrica' actiit6 to atria a''o+in contraction- $reent s$readin 6 ins)'atin 9ro)stiss)e CARDIAC CYCLE iasto'e 5 s6sto'e8iasto'e- atria % entric'es re'a*- 'ood into atri)#- atrioentric)'ar a'es o$en- 'ood into entric'es- se#i ')nar is c'osed8S6sto'e- entric'es contract- atrioentric)'ar c'oses, se#i ')nar o$ens 'ood to aorta or $)'#onar6 arter6I2TRI2SIC RHYTH0ear'6 e#r6o ce''s e in to rh6th#ica''6 contract 'on e/ore #)sc'e /or#s- ia e'ectrica' e*citation at $#8CARIO;ASCLAR CE2TER I2 BRAI2  Contro's heart- as neres s$eed the heart or s'o+ do+n- de$endant on CO= 'ee's in 'ood- nere contro' $roides 3)ic7 reactions- hor#ones a'so a!ect heart rate )t enera''6 s'o+er8CORO2ARY ARTERIESFeed #6ocardia' heart #)sc'e. 4 aoe aortic a'e /ro# aorta so receied strai ht a+a6 and 3)ic7'68 BLOOD PRESSURE 0eas)red 6 SPHY0O0A2O0ETER a)to#atic one or c)! 5 #erc)r6 #ano#eter and stethosco$e.BP > s6sto'ic $ % diasto'ic $ e8 8 1=%DH6$ertension- hi h 'ood $ress)re 1:%. can e ca)sed 6 narro+ed arteries.H6$otension- 'o+ 'ood $ress)re %. can e ca)sed 6 +ea7 heart. DRUGS FOR LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE ANTIHYPERTENSIVES Di!reti s  increased o')#e o/ )rine- 'o+er 'ood o')#e- 'o+er 'ood $ress)re SE na)sea. Beta #l$ %ers - 'oc7 hearts res$onse to hor#ones s)ch as adrena'ine that s$eed heart )$ SE diaetes 'in7. S&'pat(eti Ner)e In(i#it$rs - 'oc7 s6#$athetic neres- these et arteriesto constrict, 6 'oc7in 7ee$s arteries di'ated so 'ood $ress)re is 7e$t 'o+ SE co) h. ACE In(i#it$rs - hor#one an iotensin ca)ses 'ood esse's to constrict so inhiitors $reent these ein #ade th)s esse's are not constricted8 SE i#$aired 7idne6 /)nction. Treat#ent o/ C; ino'ed anti(&pertensi)es  'o+er $., red)cin o/ cho'estero'  statins ., anti $a*!lants - 'ess 'i7e'6 athero#a to /or#., and platelet in(i#it$rsStatins -'oc7 en(6#e in 'ier that #a7es cho'estero' SE na)sea, consti$ationor rare in?a##ation reactions- can enco)ra e a not hea'th6 diet, create attit)de that no need to eat +e'' as statins $reent cho'estero' )i'd )$. Anti $a*!lants - e8 8 @ar/arin, $reent ris7 o/ c'ot /or#ation 6 thinnin 'ood- SE )ncontro''ed 'eedin . Platelet in(i#it$rs 4 e8 8 As$irin- #a7es $'ate'ets 'ess Gstic76 4 SE irritation to sto#ach 'inin ca)se sto#ach 'eedin . CVD CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Res)'ts /ro# coronar6 arteries narro+ed +ith /att6 de$osits- narro+in red)ces ?o+ and can stare heart #)sc'e o/ o*6 en- a'so one 'ood c'ot thro#osis. increases 'i7e'ihood o/ anotherB'ood c'ottin as a $rocess is i#$ortant- $reents 'eedin to death and entrance o/ $atho ens8B)t c'ot in esse's is the $ro'e#-a#a e to esse' - exposes collagen fbres- platelets rom blood stick- the  platelets release thromboplastin- in presence o calcium ions and vitamin K thromboplastin converts prothrombin to thrombin- this converts soluble  fbrinogen to insoluble fbrin that creates a mesh-like network o fbres trapping cells + debris to = a clot. Cascade >a#a e to 'inin - increased 'i7e'ihood o/ c'ot- i/ c'ot occ)rs, in?a##ator6 res$onse- cho'estero' )i'ds )$ > athero#a- )i'd )$ o/ ca'ci)#, sa'ts and $'ate'ets > $'a3)e /or#ation- narro+s arter6- raises 'ood $ress)re- increased 'i7e'ihood o/ da#a e8C'ot can 'ead to ane)r6s#, $'a3)e ca)ses 'ood )i'd )$ ehind- arter6 )' es, can r)$t)re arter6Artherosc'erosis- $rocess as aoe )t ca'ci)# $'a3)e ca)ses 'oss o/ e'asticit6 in arter6 +a''s- 'ess a'e to co$e +ith recoi' da#a e #ore 'i7e'68@hat increases 'i7e'ihood o/ arter6 da#a e and +h6-S#o7in - nicotine inta7e res)'ts in adrena'ine $rod)ction- heart rate /aster, BPincreases-to*ins in s#o7e irritate endothe'ia' 'inin , reater ris7 o/ da#a eOesit6- reater strain on heart, a'so association et+een oesit6 and raised 'ood $ress)re% had dietInactiit6- e*ercise #a7es heart stron er so can $)#$ #ore 'ood +ith each eat8Hi h cho'estero'% /att6 died- 'ar e a#o)nts cho'estero' in 'ood strea# increases ris7 o/ c'otFa#i'6 histor6- s) ested enetic 'in7sHi h B'ood Press)re8 A e- +ith a ein e'asticit6 and +idth o/ arteries deterioratesender- oestro en in +o#en o!ers so#e $rotection /ro# C; Treat#ents- anticoa )'ants, antih6$ertensies, statins see aoe.Ris7 can e red)ced 6 chan in 'i/est6'e choices s)ch as s#o7in or ad diet Ris%  - can e act)a', as s) ested 6 st)dies, or $erceied-that is a'tered 6 an indiid)a's $ersona' e*$eriences and $erce$tions8 Ris7 is the $roai'it6 o/ the occ)rrence o/ a )n+anted eent or o)tco#e- )t corre'ation does not i#$'6 ca)sation8 E$ide#io'o ists cond)ct research to access ris7 /actors T6$es o/ st)d6 > C$($rt - #an6 $eo$'e, 'on ti#e $eriod, cate orised accordin to +ho has% doesnt hae condition- ris7 /actors accessed e8 8 0)nster Heart St)d6 see e'o+. in cho'estero'8 Case $ntr$l st!+ies - ro)$ +ith condition and contro' ro)$- $ast histor6 researched- i#$ortant to #atch case%contro' ro)$s in ter#s o/ a e% ender- inde$endent aria'es are contro''edood st)d6- a'id% re'ia'e data, re$resentatie o/ +ho'e $o$)'ation- 'ac7 ias- aria'es contro''ed as #)ch as $ossi'e- standardised #eas)re#ent% other techni3)es- sa#$'e si(e- +hi'e 'ar e sa#$'e si(e is enera''6 est- i/ on'6 tin6  hae disease s#a'' ro)$ indiid)a's s)!erin est re$resentatie than 'ar e sa#$'e +ith one or t+o s)!erers8
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks