CLARA: Designing safer livelihoods programs in Iraq

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Approximately 2.8 million people have been displaced within Iraq by the conflict between the Government of Iraq, Govern­ment of Kurdistan and armed opposition groups, including ISIS. Assets have been destroyed, transportation routes are more dangerous, and social tensions are exacerbated. This has disrupted the livelihoods of both internally displaced persons (IDPs) and host communities. Both the IDP and host communities attempt to protect women and girls by restricting their mobility. This has limited women’s ability to participate in livelihoods, and they are mainly now confined to their homes. As men are the primary breadwinners in Iraq/Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI), support for their livelihoods is imperative for the recovery of both IDP and host families, as well as to gain allies for women’s livelihoods. This report shows how when gender analysis informs programme design, liveli­hood initiatives can safely seed longer-term recovery, while saving lives. It describes the work of the Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC), partnered with Oxfam, to pilot the Cohort Livelihoods and Risk Analysis (CLARA) guidance and tool in Iraq/KRI. Developed by WRC, CLARA assesses needs, risks and opportunities, and highlights mitigation strategies for safer, more responsive humanitarian assistance. Also available is the CLARA toolkit as a separate document – see downloads.
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  Women’s Refugee Commission Research. Rethink. Resolve. July 2015 CLARA: Designing safer livelihoods programs in Iraq  The Women’s Refugee Commission works to improve the lives and protect the rights of women, children and youth displaced by conflict and crisis. We research their needs, identify solutions and advocate for programs and policies to strengthen their resilience and drive change in humanitarian practice. Oxfam is an international confederation of 17 organizations working together with partners and local com- munities in more than 90 countries. Oxfam works with partner organizations and alongside vulnerable women and men to end the injustices that cause poverty. We save lives and help rebuild livelihoods when crisis strikes. And we campaign so that the voices of the poor influence the local and global decisions that affect them. In humanitarian work, Oxfam specializes in water, sanitation and hygiene, emergency food security, livelihoods and protection. Acknowledgements This report was written by Tenzin Manell of the Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC) and Stephanie Roberson of Oxfam. Dale Buscher of the WRC provided key guidance. Additional feedback was received from WRC colleagues Joshua Chaffin and Omar J. Robles, as well as Oxfam colleagues Atif Ismail Zakaria, Lou Lasap and Zorica Skakun. The WRC and Oxfam would also like to thank the data collection team: Mohammed Bahjat, Diyana Kreem, Snwr Omer Mohammed, Bebak Emad Abdulrahman, Hardi Adil Qadir, Amer Ali Akbar, Soma Majeed Khudadad, Frmesk Osman Rahim and Shahen Qadir Ali. Special thanks to the internally displaced, returnee and host women, men, adolescent girls and boys who participated in the assessment. Diana Quick from WRC edited and designed the report.This report is made possible by the generous support of the Canadian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Development and the NoVo Foundation. Photographs by Stephanie Roberson and Tenzin Manell. Front cover photo: A data collector conducts an interview with an elderly internally displaced woman.Back cover photo: Data collectors lead a focus group discussion with internally displaced men. The report and its resources can be found at http://wrc.ms/CLARA-Iraq or http://oxf.am/ZPNg © 2015 Women’s Refugee Commission and Oxfam ISBN:1-58030-138-XWomen’s Refugee Commission122 East 42nd StreetNew York, NY 10168-1289USA+1.212.551.3115info@wrcommission.org womensrefugeecommission.orgOxfam John Smith Drive Oxford OX4 2JY United Kingdom+44 (0) 1865 47 3727 www.oxfam.org.uk   Contents Acronyms ...............................................................................................................................iGlossary .................................................................................................................................ii1. Executive Summary .........................................................................................................12. Introduction to CLARA - Cohort Livelihoods and Risk Analysis ..........................23. Iraq Context .....................................................................................................................34. Methodology .....................................................................................................................45. Livelihoods in Iraq............................................................................................................56. Findings .............................................................................................................................66.1 Internally Displaced People ................................................................................66.2 Social Cohesion ....................................................................................................76.3 Farmers ...................................................................................................................96.4 Shepherds ..............................................................................................................96.5 Traders ...................................................................................................................106.6 Laborers ..................................................................................................................116.7 Women ....................................................................................................................126.8 Adolescent Girls and Boys ................................................................................156.9 Persons with Disabilities/Elderly .......................................................................187. Recommendations ..........................................................................................................187.1 Program Design .......................................................................................................187. 1.1 Farmers ............................................................................................................207. 1.2 Shepherds ......................................................................................................217. 1.3 Traders .............................................................................................................227. 1.4 Laborers ..........................................................................................................227. 1.5 Women ............................................................................................................237. 1.6 Adolescent Girls and Boys .........................................................................257. 1.7 Persons with Disabilities/Elderly ...............................................................267.2 Implementation and Monitoring ............................................................................278. Next Steps ......................................................................................................................27Notes ......................................................................................................................................28 Annexes ..................................................................................................................................30A. Detailed Methodology ..............................................................................................30B. Draft CLARA Guidance and Tool .........................................................................32C. CLARA Tools used in Iraq/KRI ..............................................................................41C.1. English ................................................................................................................41C.2 Arabic ..................................................................................................................64D. Wealth Breakdown .........................................................................................................88E. Seasonal Calendar .........................................................................................................95  i CEFM Child, early and forced marriage CLARA Cohort Livelihoods and Risk AnalysisCTP Cash transfer programmingDPO Disabled people’s organizationEFSVL Emergency food security and vulnerable livelihoodsFGD Focus group discussionFSAC Food Security and Agriculture ClusterGBV Gender-based violenceHH HouseholdIDP Internally displaced personIED Improvised explosive deviceIQD Iraqi dinarKRI Kurdistan Region of IraqM&E Monitoring and evaluationMENA Middle East/North Africa regionMSME Micro, small and medium enterprisesPDS Public distribution systemPWD Persons with disabilitiesSC-SL Social Cohesion and Sustainable Livelihoods (Cluster)UCG Unconditional cash grantWRC Women’s Refugee Commission Acronyms & Abbreviations
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