Consolidated Gender Analysis for the Ethiopian Drought Response

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This report is the first to be published by the project ‘Institutionalising Gender in Emergencies’, which is funded by the European Community Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) and implemented by Oxfam in Dominican Republic, Pakistan, Ethiopia and South Sudan. It is a gender analysis developed in collaboration with CARE Ethiopia and combines a desk review with primary field research in Ethiopia, focusing on the gendered effects of the drought brought by El Niño in 2015. These findings offer a starting point from which to improve gender-responsive approach to humanitarian action. The report makes recommendations relating to a range of emergency areas. The findings are to be used to influence change throughout the humanitarian sphere. The aim is for them to influence how programmes are planned, monitored and evaluated, and to ensure they incorporate gender as a central component and account for the varied impacts of the drought, and how the programme will address the different needs of men, women, girls and boys.
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  JOINT AGENCY CONSOLIDATED GENDER ANALYSIS   JULY 2016   Women collecting firewood. Asbuli Kebele, Erer Woreda, Siti Zone, March 2016. Photo: Luisa Dietrich. CONSOLIDATED GENDER ANALYSIS FOR THE ETHIOPIAN DROUGHT RESPONSE  CONTENTS Executive summary 6   1.   Introduction 11  1.1.   E THIOPIA :  COUNTRY PROFILE AND GENDER INEQUALITY  ............................................................ 11   1.2.   T HE HUMANITARIAN CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT DROUGHT  ......................................................... 11   1.3.   B ACKGROUND TO THIS REPORT  ................................................................................................ 12   1.4.   S AMPLING AND METHODOLOGY  ................................................................................................ 13   2.   IMPACT OF THE DROUGHT ON MEN, WOMEN, GIRLS AND BOYS 14  2.1.   A CCESS TO FOOD AND WATER  –  OVERALL VULNERABILITY  ........................................................ 14   2.2.   L IVELIHOODS AND ACCESS TO PRODUCTIVE LAND  ..................................................................... 17   2.3.   A CCESS TO EDUCATION  ........................................................................................................... 19   2.4.   H EALTH ,  INCLUDING SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ......................................................... 19   2.5.   A CCESS TO WASH ................................................................................................................. 20   2.6.   A CCESS TO INFORMATION  ........................................................................................................ 22   2.7.   P ROTECTION ISSUES ................................................................................................................ 22   2.8.   D ECISION MAKING AND LEADERSHIP  ......................................................................................... 26   3.   CHANGING GENDER DYNAMICS AND COPING STRATEGIES 27  3.1.   P RODUCTIVE WORK  ................................................................................................................. 27   3.2.   R EPRODUCTIVE CARE ACTIVITIES  ............................................................................................. 28   3.3.   C OMMUNITY ACTIVITIES  ........................................................................................................... 29   3.4.   C OPING STRATEGIES  ............................................................................................................... 29   3.5.   D EBT  ...................................................................................................................................... 30   4.   PRIORITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR GENDER-RESPONSIVE PROGRAMMING 31  4.1.   P RIORITY NEEDS  ..................................................................................................................... 31   4.2.   I DEAS OF AFFECTED MEN AND WOMEN  ...................................................................................... 32   5.   HUMANITARIAN COORDINATION 34   6.   RECOMMENDATIONS 34  A NNEX 1  INCLUDING NOTES  ............................................................................................................ 40 6   2  FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1: Map of the drought ‘hotspot’ areas in Ethiopia 12   Figure 2: Perceptions of the most food-insecure population groups in Somali and Afar regions 14   Figure 3: Priorities for food intake in households in Somali and Afar regions 15   Figure 4: Oxfam survey data on how livelihoods have been affected by the drought, among 179 respondents 17   Figure 5: Use of latrines in Siti Zone and Zone 2 20   Figure 6: What are the main reasons for tensions within the household? 23   Figure 7: What is borrowed money used for? 31 Figure 8: Preferred cash-for-work activities for women and men 32   Table 1: Oxfam study on gender-related decision making among 179 respondents in Afar and Somali regions 27   Table 2: Household engagement in community activities among 179 respondents in Afar and Somali regions 29   3  Acronyms and abbreviations CCRDA Consortium of Christian Relief and Development Associations CFW Cash-for-work CSA Central Statistical Agency ECHO European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations EDHS Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey FGD Focus group discussion FGM/C Female genital mutilation/cutting GA Gender analysis GDP Gross domestic product GIHAWG Gender in Humanitarian Action Working Group GoE Government of Ethiopia GTP II Growth and Transformation Plan II GBV Gender-based violence HRD Humanitarian Requirements Document HTP Harmful traditional practice IDP Internally displaced person M&E Monitoring and evaluation NFI Non-food item NGO Non-governmental organization PSEA Prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse PSNP Productive Safety Net Programme RCWDO Rift Valley Children and Women Development Organization SEA Sexual exploitation and abuse SEDA Sustainable Environment and Development Action SGBV Sexual and gender-based violence VSLA Village savings and loan association WASH Water, sanitation and hygiene 4
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