Crim 2 a Murao Notes | Treason | Acquittal

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  L ECTURE   AND   RECITATION   NOTES   ON  C RIMINAL  L AW  II WITH   UPDATED  S PECIAL  P ENAL  L AWS   (A TTY . M AXIMO  P. A MURAO )---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A RTICLE  114 - T REASON   ã Who may commit treason? FILIPINO CITIZEN ã Where may he commit treason? ANYWHERE ã Are those who commit treason abroa crimina!!y !iab!e? YE ã Why is it that a Fi!i#ino citi$en may commit treason e%en i& abroa? ' (e&inition o& treason) conce#t o& a!!e*iance ã What a!!e*iance is owe by a non'resient a!ien? ã Why are #ena! !aws territoria!? ã What is the territoria!ity #rinci#!e? ã (oes this %io!ate the #rinci#!e o& territoria!ity? NO+ ee Par+ ,- Art+ . o& the RPC /crimes committe a*ainst nationa! sec0rity an the !aw o& the nations) treason is a crime a*ainst a nationa! sec0rity- there&ore it &a!!s within the e1ce#tions2 ã Where may an a!ien commit treason? On!y in the Phi!i##ines) he owes tem#orary a!!e*iance to the *o%t+ o& the Phi!+ in ret0rn &or #rotection he recei%es ã What i& he was once a 3a#anese an then he becomes a nat0ra!i$e citi$en- may he sti!! be !iab!e &or treason? YE + There is no istinction mae in Art+ 445  0##osin* 0rin* time o& war- a Chinese b0sinessman- who has been resiin* in the Phi!i##ines &or ten years- ecies to %isit China+ Whi!e there- he commits treasono0s acts a*ainst the Phi!i##ines+ Is he !iab!e &or treason? 0##osin* 0rin* time o& war- a Chinese to0rist %isits the Phi!i##ines &or three ays+ On his thir ay o& stay- he commits treasono0s acts a*ainst the Phi!i##ines+ Is he !iab!e &or treason? ã How is treason committe? (1) By levying war against the government  ã ho0! there be an act0a! mi!itary enco0nter with the *o%t+ &orces? Not necessari!y ã Can this be committe by 60st one #erson? NO) 0se o& the wor 7EN in e!ement 84 ã Is it necessary that this assemb!y o& men be arme? NO+ There is no 90a!i&ication in the !aw  0##osin* the Phi!+ :o%t+ was at war with 3a#an+ We were a!! 0narme an we were isc0ssin* ways an means o& e&&ecti%e!y e!i%erin* the *o%t+ into the hans o& &orei*n #ower+ Liab!e &or treason? YE + Com#!ie with e!ements o& !e%yin* war  P REPARED   BY :  Dyann Kristi Catapang & Katheri Ann Charcos U PDATED   BY :  Katrina Ayn Ayza Cue, Louresse atricia !ane oriaso & #ze$iel !oshua %illena 1  L ECTURE   AND   RECITATION   NOTES   ON  C RIMINAL  L AW  II WITH   UPDATED  S PECIAL  P ENAL  L AWS   (A TTY . M AXIMO  P. A MURAO )---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- () By a'hering to the enemies an' giving them ai'  ã (0rin* the 3a#anese occ0#ation- certain Fi!i#inos were mo%in* aro0n- con%incin* the #eo#!e that the #rinci#!es o& the *o%t+ o& 3a#an are better than that &o!!owe by the Phi!+ Treasono0s?  NO+ there is on!y aherence in this case /aherin* to the enemies an *i%in* ai or com&ort m0st conc0r2  0##ose that 0rin* the 3a#anese occ0#ation- yo0 were a merchant en*a*e in the se!!in* o& wea#ons an yo0 were ha%in* transactions with the 3a#anese+ Treasono0s? YE + Aherence to the enemy may be im#!ie by the nat0re o& the act committe+  0##ose yo0 were en*a*e in a trans#ortation b0siness) 3a#anese hire yo0r b0ses to trans#ort their troo#s to another #ro%ince+ Liab!e? YE + It wi!! irect!y stren*then the enemy;s troo#s  0##ose yo0 were a rice merchant s0##!yin* 3a#anese with rice+ Liab!e? NO+ (oes not stren*then enemy) no aherence on yo0r #art  0##osin*- 0rin* time o& war- a yo0n* Fi!i#ina &a!!s in !o%e with a 3a#anese so!ier+ Is she !iab!e &or treason? What i& she s0##!ies names o& *0erri!!a !eaers to him?  0##osin* a #ro&essor- 0rin* time o& war- !ect0res abo0t the a%anta*es o& ha%in* a *o%ernment simi!ar to the 3a#anese+ Is he !iab!e &or treason?  0##osin* a c!ass- isc0ss an %o!0nteer to o i&&erent means to he!# the 3a#anese /i+e+ istrib0tion o& wea#ons- etc+2 Are the members !iab!e &or treason? ã Conviction o T! #$on (1) Con $$ion o %&i't  < #!ea o& *0i!tyProsec0tion nee not #resent e%ience b0t may #resent it on!y to show the #resence o& A::RA=ATIN: CIRC>7 TANCE () T $tion* o T+o ,itn $$$ $ +it t $# ov !t #ct ã WHY? @eca0se it carries with it #ena!ty o& eath an it is committe in abnorma! circ0mstance ã Testimony o& two witnesses to two i&&erent acts is not eno0*h &or con%iction) testimony o& two witnesses m0st be creib!e an be!ie%e by the co0rt ã Is it eno0*h that there be two witnesses? <(e#ens i& testimony #oints to the same acts- it is eno0*h that there are on!y two witnesses P REPARED   BY :  Dyann Kristi Catapang & Katheri Ann Charcos U PDATED   BY :  Katrina Ayn Ayza Cue, Louresse atricia !ane oriaso & #ze$iel !oshua %illena   L ECTURE   AND   RECITATION   NOTES   ON  C RIMINAL  L AW  II WITH   UPDATED  S PECIAL  P ENAL  L AWS   (A TTY . M AXIMO  P. A MURAO )---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ã Is #roo& beyon reasonab!e o0bt /P@R(2 s0&&icient to con%ict the acc0se? NO+ There is &0rther re90irement o& two witnesses who sho0! testi&y on the same o%ert act /treason is the on!y &e!ony in the entire RPC where P@R( is not s0&&icient2 ã E1tra60icia! con&ession is not s0&&icient to con%ict a #erson o& treason) con&ession m0st be mae in o#en co0rt ã P!o$ c&tion o T! #$on  Witness 84 saw #ersona!!y the acc0se in the com#any o& a 3a#anese ma6or who went to the ho0se o& a *0erri!!a o&&icer) saw the acc0se #oint at the *0erri!!a- an the !atter was tie an ra**e+Witness 8. was wa!Bin* in the &arm !ocate across the br*y+ ha!!) saw the 6ee# where the *0erri!!a o&&icer was) saw him bein* ra**e by the 3a#anese- a&ter which they shot him+ Is the .'witness r0!e com#!ie with? NO+  0##ose the #rosec0tion #resente three witnesses b0t the co0rt *a%e creence on!y to one witness+ Ac90it or con%ict? Ac90it &or non'com#!iance with the .'witness r0!e+ ã I& the common crimes were committe an was in any way connecte with the ob6ecti%es o& treason < !iabi!ity is se#arate ã Acc0se was char*e with treason an 4 acts o& Bina##in* with ransom #0r#ose o& ransom was to &inance their /treasono0s2 acti%ities+ Liabi!ity? Treason+ A RTICLE  11 - C ONSPIRACY   TO  C OMMIT  T REASON  A RTICLE  11/ - M ISPRISION   O0  T REASON   ã How soon sho0! the isc!os0re be mae? Within a reasonab!e #erio which wi!! e#en on the  60*ement o& the 60*e ã @y any #erson? NO+ re&er to e!ement 84 ã (oes this %io!ate the #rinci#!e o& *enera!ity? Yes- it %io!ates @>T this is an e1#ress e1ce#tion  by #ro%ision o& the !aw  0##osin*- acc0se is #rosec0te &or 7T) a!!e*e in the in&o that bein* a Fi!i#ino citi$en- he owes #ermanent a!!e*iance an ha%in* Bnow!e*e o& #ersons who #er&orme acts w the %iew o& o%erthrowin* the *o%t+- he sho0! ha%e isc!ose the same+ Liab!e? NO+ Dnow!e*e was a!reay abo0t treason /in the &irst manner2 an not mere cons#iracy  0##osin*- acc0se is resient o& a city) has Bnow!e*e o& cons#iracy) re&0se to isc!ose the matter to the mayor&isca! beca0se they are amon* the most corr0#t) isc!ose the matter irect!y to the AFP Chie& o& ta&&+ Liab!e &or 7T? NO+ E%en i& the matter was not isc!ose to P REPARED   BY :  Dyann Kristi Catapang & Katheri Ann Charcos U PDATED   BY :  Katrina Ayn Ayza Cue, Louresse atricia !ane oriaso & #ze$iel !oshua %illena   L ECTURE   AND   RECITATION   NOTES   ON  C RIMINAL  L AW  II WITH   UPDATED  S PECIAL  P ENAL  L AWS   (A TTY . M AXIMO  P. A MURAO )---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the #ersons s#eci&ie in the !aw- there was no intent on the #art o& the acc0se not to isc!ose the in&o+  0##osin* a witness sees a *ro0# o& men- a!! 0narme- isc0ssin* means to commit treasono0s acts a*ainst the *o%ernment+ He oes not isc!ose what he sees to anyone+ Liab!e? A RTICLE  112 - E SPIONA%E   ã Where may es#iona*e in the &irst manner be committe /RPC2?  0##ose that the > onate armaments- etc+ to the Phi!+ :o%t+ to be 0se &or its war a*ainst 7a!aysia) arms were store in a wareho0se in N0e%a Eci6a) news#a#er re#orter witho0t a0thority went insie the wareho0se to taBe #hotos o& the arms) was sti!! , meters away &rom the wareho0se when he was accoste+ Liab!e? YE + E!ements o& &irst manner o& committin* the crime were #resent  0##osin*- a news#a#er man who was accoste to! the mi!itary o&&icers that he wante to taBe the #hotos o& the moern war&are that he rea in Remate /tab!oi2+ Liab!e? NO beca0se what he intens to obtain is not anymore con&ientia!) the matter has cease to be con&ientia!  beca0se o& its #re%io0s #0b!ication  0##osin*- yo0 c!imbe a tree to #hoto*ra#h con&ientia! in&ormation+ 7ay yo0 be he! !iab!e &or es#iona*e 0ner the RPC? No+ @0t yo0 may be !iab!e &or %io!ation o& CA 4+  7ay es#iona*e be committe in the Nationa! Library? In the @eneictine Abbey?  0##osin* yo0 #ai the 6anitor to obtain con&ientia! in&ormation &or yo0+ Are yo0 !iab!e &or es#iona*e 0ner the RPC? How abo0t the 6anitor? ã 7ay es#iona*e in the secon manner be committe by a #ri%ate #erson /RPC2? No+  0##osin* a hi*h ranBin* mi!itary o&&icer isc!oses con&ientia! matters to a bea0ty contestant &rom another nation+ Is he !iab!e &or es#iona*e? Yes+ The !aw oes not istin*0ish &orei*n re#resentati%e+ A RTICLE  113 - I NCITIN%  T O  , AR    OR   % IIN%  M OTIE   0OR   R  EPRISALS    0##osin* #rotesters b0rn the > &!a* in &ront o& the > embassy- are they !iab!e? (oes the act ha%e a tenency to #ro%oBe war a*ainst > ? ã (oes the raisin* o& troo#s constit0te incitin* to war? A RTICLE  115 -  IOLATION   O0  N EUTRALITY  A RTICLE  16 - C ORRESPONDENCE   ,IT7  7 OSTILE  C OUNTRY  P REPARED   BY :  Dyann Kristi Catapang & Katheri Ann Charcos U PDATED   BY :  Katrina Ayn Ayza Cue, Louresse atricia !ane oriaso & #ze$iel !oshua %illena 4
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