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EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON ORGANISMS AND PROTECTION PRINCIPLES HANDAN TUNCEL İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty Department of Biophysics The electromagnetic
EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON ORGANISMS AND PROTECTION PRINCIPLES HANDAN TUNCEL İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty Department of Biophysics The electromagnetic forces hold from the atoms to molecules, macromolecules to cells in the living organisms. If we think the living organisms like sensitive electronic equipments the electromagnetic field that come from the environment can effect or damage them. What are EMFs? An EMF (which stands for Electromagnetic Field ) is a field of energy created by electrically charged objects. An electromagnetic field has two components , a magnetic component and an electric component. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents). What are these ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES? Vibrating direction Extension direction v=3.109 m/s E H Figure 2.c: Schematic structure of the electromagnetic waves. Discussing every frequencies High frequency, Low wave length / Low frequency High wave length Cosmic radiation Gamma Beta Alpha x-waves UV LIGHT Microwave IR Mobile phones Rf TV ELF Electromagnetic fields are also often referred to as Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). You can't see, feel or hear electromagnetic fields, apart from visible light, which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic radiation has been around since the birth of the universe; light is its most familiar form. Electric and magnetic fields are part of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation which extends from static electric and magnetic fields, through radiofrequency and infrared radiation, to X-rays. Here are some of the technologies that use or give off EMFs: Mains electricity Radio TV Mobile Phones Microwave ovens WiFi Infra-red Visible light Where do EMFs come from? (1) The earth's magnetic fields are static fields, unlike manmade alternating current (AC), which has no natural counterpart. Where do EMFs come from? (2) Microwave frequency exposure is a relatively new phenomenon: 100 years ago the background radiation was millions of times lower than it is now, and it is as recent as the mobile phone boom (~1990's) that the modern, digitally pulsed signals have become ubiquitous in the Western world. Power frequency (50Hz in the TURKIYE) is given off by any appliance or transmission of AC (alternating current) electrity. Electrical wiring creates electric and magnetic powerfrequency fields throughout houses and other wired buildings. Infra Red (IR): Cause heat accumulation on the skin and heat is emitted from the skin. Visible Light: Effects the retina and we sea the colours. Extremely high amplitude cause heat sense on the skin. These explained all electromagnetic fields have not high frequencies that their energies (E=h.f) can tear an electron from the atom or molecule. Therefore they are known as nonionising fields. ELF (Extremely Low Frequency): These fields have very low frequencies. They have only electric or magnetic effects. They can be detect only with special equipments. The most important frequencies are Hz that extend from city plugs and high transmission lines that can cause losemia and brain cancers especially to the children. Rf (Radio Frequency): They are used for radio, TV, wireless communications or medical equipments. They are absorbed in the body (SAR) or cause little currents. Effects can increase with the resonance according to the height of the body. Extreme amplitudes can cause dangerous effects on the body. TV (UHF, VHF et.): Used for the TV communications. Mobile Phones: Frequencies on 900 and 1800 MHz used by public communication The negative effects can increase with duration and amplitude. Microwaves: Increase heat accumulation inside the body. At 2450 MHz frequency water molecules absorb the energy and used for cooking. Are EMFs dangerous? (1) Childhood leukaemia has been internationally accepted as linked to powerfrequency exposure magnetic fields, with a wealth of literature finding increases in risk to this and other illnesses. June 2001 IARC CLASSIFIES ELF, AS POSSIBLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS 31 May 2011 IARC CLASSIFIES RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AS POSSIBLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS Microwave Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (300 MHz to 30 GHz) There are internationally accepted guidelines by the International Commission for Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) that have been designed to limit both residential and occupational exposure to levels that are safely below those that can heat up tissue. Currently these guidelines are between 28 and 61 volts per metre (V/m) depending on frequency. However, recently there has been a number of studies showing very specific biological effects far lower than these levels, and as yet there is no international guidance that has taken any of these studies into effect. Microwave Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (300 MHz to 30 GHz) This, coupled with misleading statements designed to imply that there is currently no published evidence showing a link from organisations such as WHO, are the primary reasons why this topic remains in such hotly-disputed contention. In contrast to the exposure guidelines levels set by ICNIRP, health effects are being reported as low as 0.06 V/m. Typical sources of exposure from microwave frequency EMFs are: Mobile Phones Mobile Phone Masts Digital Cordless Phones WiFi and WiMax TETRA (police communication system) Power Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (50 Hz (TURKIYE) and 60 Hz (USA) (1) Powerfrequency electromagnetic fields are generated by any appliance running off AC (alternating current) power - anything plugged into a main power socket will generate them to some degree. ICNIRP have set guidelines for residential and occupational exposure to powerfrequency magnetic fields, based primarily on electric shock responses and induced currents, currently set at 100 microtesla (µt) - equivalent to 1 Gauss. Power Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (50 Hz (TURKIYE) and 60 Hz (USA) (2) At the moment, health effects primarily associated with powerfrequency EMFs are due to the magnetic component these include, but are not limited to, Childhood Leukaemia, Adult Leukaemia, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Miscarriage, and Clinical Depression. Power Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (50 Hz (TURKIYE) and 60 Hz (USA) (3) Typical sources of exposure from power frequency EMFs are: Powerlines Electrical Substations House Wiring Many standard electrical appliances e n t Electromagnetic fields (EMF) Search About us Publications Contact us Electromagnetic fields WHO Programmes and projects Electromagnetic fields of all frequencies represent one of the most common and fastest growing environmental influences, about which anxiety and speculation are spreading. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of EMF, and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. As part of its Charter to protect public health and in response to public concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International EMF Project in 1996 to assess the scientific evidence of possible health effects of EMF in the frequency range from 0 to 300 GHz. The EMF Project is open to broad participation The EMF Project is open to any WHO Member State government, i.e. department of health, or representatives of other national institutions concerned with radiation protection. The project is fully funded by participating countries and agencies. Further information for more information on the EMF Project, please for contacts and information regarding EMF related matters in your country, click here. Participating countries & entities in EMF Project Click on your location in the map below to find information on contact details and activities relating to EMF in your area.
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