Elementary Education in India: Progress, setbacks, and challenges | Teachers

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 39
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Documents

Published:

Views: 7 | Pages: 39

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
This review of India's progress towards universal elementary education (UEE) highlights major issues in quality, equity, and inclusion arising from gender disparity, social exclusion, and locational disadvantages. It also suggests six areas for improving public action: advocacy
Transcript
  Oxfam India working   papers series September 2010OIWPS - III  A. K. Shiva Kumar and Preet Rustagi Essential Services Elementary Education in India: Progress, Setbacks, and Challenges  This paper provides a stocktaking of progress and shortcomings in India’s march towards universalisation of elementary education (UEE), whilst addressing concerns of equity, inclusion, and quality from the central focus which looks into the dimensions of locational disadvantage, social exclusion, gender disparity, and special needs for children of other neglected groups. It focuses on gaps in enrolment, infrastructural provisioning, equity concerns in terms of being inclusive in the context of schools functioning, teachers (social group, training, motivation, transaction and so on), management, and governance issues. The extent and manifestations of non-inclusion or exclusion in the educational context is also related to the capacity of the State as re fl ected in the policy fuzziness and ambiguities. Six areas for public action are suggested. Apart from structural reforms, a much stronger public pressure backed by better and shared public reasoning is required for overcoming the challenges for attainment of compulsory and free education to all children Abstract Disclaimer: Oxfam India Working Paper Series disseminates the fi nding of the work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the fi ndings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The fi ndings, interpretations, and conclusion expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of Oxfam India. Produced by:   Oxfam India  For more information, please contact:  Avinash Kumar  Theme Lead - Essential ServicesOxfam IndiaPlot No. 1, Community Centre2nd Floor (Above Sujan Mahinder Hospital)New Friends Colony, New Delhi - 110 025Tel: 91 11 4653 8000Website: www.oxfamindia.org  Authors:  A.K. Shiva Kumar and Preet Rustagi  A. K. Shiva Kumar   is a development economist and Adviser to UNICEF, India. He is also Visiting Professor at the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad and teaches economics and public policy at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. Shiv works on issues of poverty, health, nutrition, basic education, women’s right and children’s rights. He is closely involved with development evaluation and is a founding member of the International Development Evaluation Association. He has been a regular contributor to UNDP’s Human Development Reports and National Human Development Reports. His areas of interest include human development, social sector analysis, and the impact of development policies on children and women. He works closely with several non-governmental organizations engaged in the promotion of health, human rights and environment. Shiv did his M.A. in Economics from Bangalore University and his Post Graduate Diploma in Management from Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He also has a Masters in Public Administration and a Ph.D in Political Economy and Government, both from Harvard University.Email: forshiv@yahoo.com Preet Rustagi  has a doctorate in economics from Jawaharlal Nehru University and is currently a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Human Development (IHD), New Delhi. She has been working on labour, development and gender issues (including violence against women) for the past twelve years. Her recent research interests include urban poverty; child poverty and deprivations; education; and food security. She has published several articles on these subjects in various national and international journals and books. Her edited volume titled Concerns, Con fl icts and Cohesions: Universalization of Elementary Education in India was published recently by Oxford University Press, New Delhi. She is also an associate editor of the Indian Journal of Human DevelopmentEmail: preetpat@gmail.com Study Supported by Oxfam India in collaboration with Institute for Human Development, New Delhi Copyright @ 2010 Oxfam IndiaReproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized, without prior written permission, provided the source is fully acknowledged.  1. Introduction The Indian State is well aware of the importance of ensuring universal basic education. In 1950, the Constitution had resolved in Article 45 under the Directive Principles of state Policy that the ‘…State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen’. Since then, many documents including every Five Year Plan, the 1968 National Policy on Education, and the revised 1992 National Policy on Education have attempted to refine India’s efforts at Universal Elementary Education (UEE). There have been important Constitutional amendments as well that were intended to give a boost to elementary education. The 42 nd  Amendment to the Constitution in 1976 brought education, which was largely a state responsibility, into the Concurrent List and made universalizing elementary education the responsibility of both the central and state governments. In 2002, Government of India took another significant step by making elementary education a fundamental right through the 86 th  Constitutional Amendment. In 2009, India went further and passed the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education  Act (2009). Many positive developments have been recorded, especially after the 1990s. Demand for basic education continues to grow with increasing recognition of the importance of educating children among parents and guardians. Infrastructural facilities have improved over the past two decades, gross enrolment is almost universal, dropout rates have declined even for girls at the primary level, and many more teachers have been appointed. More school incentives (such as free textbooks and the serving of cooked meals) have led to better outreach and coverage. This paper addresses concerns of equity, inclusion, and quality in the context of elementary 1  education from the central focus which looks into the dimensions of locational disadvantage, social exclusion, gender disparity, and special needs for children of other neglected groups. It begins with a stocktaking of progress and shortcomings in India’s march towards UEE. It focuses on gaps in enrolment, infrastructural provisioning, equity concerns – social and locational, quality and effectiveness in terms of being inclusive in the context of schools functioning, teachers (social group, training, motivation, transaction and so on), management, and governance issues. It highlights the extent and manifestations of non-inclusion or exclusion in the educational context. Finally, as the way forward, a section is devoted to addressing some of the areas for public action. 1  This does not undermine the major challenge higher education poses in all these respects and probably more.
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks