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  Renewable energy source water pumping systems  —  A literature review C. Gopal a,c , M. Mohanraj a, n , P. Chandramohan b , P. Chandrasekar b a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Info Institute of Engineering, Sathy Road, Coimbatore-641107, India b School of Engineering, Professional Group of Institutions, Trichy Road, K.N. Puram, Palladam, Coimbatore-641662, India c Flow Tech Power  — Micro irrigation systems, Sathy Road, Saravanampatti, Coimbatore 641035, India a r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Received 11 June 2012Received in revised form8 April 2013Accepted 20 April 2013Available online 30 May 2013 Keywords: Solar photovoltaicSolar thermalWindBio-massHybrid renewableWater pumping systems a b s t r a c t The research developments with renewable energy source water pumping systems (RESWPSs) arereviewed in this paper. The reported investigations are categorized into  󿬁 ve major groups as follows:(i) solar photovoltaic water pumping systems (SPWPSs), (ii) solar thermal water pumping systems(STWPSs), (iii) wind energy water pumping systems (WEWPSs), (iv) biomass water pumping systems(BWPSs) and (v) hybrid renewable energy water pumping systems (HREWPSs). More than a hundredpublished articles related to RESWPSs are brie 󿬂 y reviewed. Additionally, the limitations with RESWPSsand further research needs are described. This paper concludes that renewable energy sources (RESs)play a vital role in reducing the consumption of conventional energy sources and its environmentalimpacts for water pumping applications. &  2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Contents 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3522. Studies on SPWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3522.1. Working principle of SPWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3522.2. Performance of SPWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3522.3. Types of motors and pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3552.3.1. Types of motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3552.3.2. Water pumps used in SPWPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3552.4. Cooling of solar photovoltaic panels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3562.5. Optimal sizing of SPWPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3562.6. Control of SPWPS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3582.7. Economic and environmental aspects of SPWPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3592.7.1. Economic aspects of SPWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3592.7.2. Environmental impacts of SPWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3592.8. Limitations of SPWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3603. Studies on STWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3603.1. Working principle of STWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3603.2. STWPSs based on vapor power cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3603.3. Solar assisted methyl hydride water pumping systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3613.4. Limitations of STWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3614. Studies on WEWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3614.1. Working principle of WEWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3614.2. Performance of WEWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3624.3. Economic aspects of WEWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3634.4. Environmental impacts of WEWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3634.5. Limitations of WEWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 1364-0321/$-see front matter  &  2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.04.012 n Corresponding author. Tel.: + 91 9486411896. E-mail address:  mohanrajrac@yahoo.co.in (M. Mohanraj).Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 25 (2013) 351  –  370  5. Producer gas or biogas dual fuel engine pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3635.1. Working principle of BWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3635.2. Performance of BWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3645.3. Economic aspects of BWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3645.4. Limitations of BWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3646. Studies on HREWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3646.1. Working principle of HREWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3646.2. Performance of HREWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3647. Performance comparison of different RESWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3657.1. Performance comparison of SPWPSs and diesel powered systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3657.2. Performance comparison of WEWPSs and diesel powered systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3667.3. Performance comparison of BWPSs with diesel water pumping systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3667.4. Performance comparison of SPWPSs and wind and diesel powered systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3667.5. Performance of SPWPSs, WEWPSs and HREWPSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3667.6. Cost comparison of various RESWPSs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3668. RESWPSs  —  Indian scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3679. Further research needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36710. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 1. Introduction In India, electrical and diesel-powered water pumping systemsarewidelyutilizedforirrigationapplications.Thecontinuousexhaus-tion of conventional energy sources and their environmental impactshave created an interest in choosing RESs such as solar-photovoltaic,solar-thermal, wind energy, producer gas and biomass sourcesto power water pumping systems [1]. The need for the optimumutilization of water and energy resources has become a vital issueduring the last decade, and it will become more essential in thefuture. The availability of RESs such as solar photovoltaic, solarthermal, wind, biomass and various hybrid forms of energy sourcesprovides good solutions for energy related problems in India [2].To meet the energy demands and reduce the environmentalimpact, the idea of integrating RESs such as solar photovoltaic [3,4], solar thermal [5], wind [6], biomass [7] and hybrid forms of energy [8,9] with water pumps has been proposed by many researchers around the world. Earlier reviews reported in this area highlightedthe historical developmentof solarenergy water pumping systems forirrigation applications [10,11]. In another review work, Wong and Sumathy [12] consolidated the developments of STWPS, and Delgado-Torres [13] updated the developments of STWPSs. Many researchinvestigations have been reported on RESWPSs during the last decade.However, there is no speci 󿬁 c review on RESWPSs. Following theprevious cited reviews, the main objectives of this review work can beformulated as follows: (i) a summary of the studies reported withvarious RESWPSs, (ii) a comparison of various forms of RESWPSs, and(iii) the identi 󿬁 cation of the future research needs of RESWPSs.The remaining part of this review contains nine sections. Thereviewed articles were categorized as follows: Section 2 (SPWPSs)[16  –  100], Section 3 (STWPSs) [101  –  114], Section 4 (WEWPSs) [115  –  140], Section 5 (BWPSs) [141  –  144], Section 6 (HREWPSs) [145  –  147]and Section 7 (comparison of RESWPSs) [148  –  159]. The currentscenario of the RESWPS in India is described in Section 8 [160  –  162].Additionally, future research needs with RESWPSs are identi 󿬁 ed andpresented in Section 9 [163  –  168]. 2. Studies on SPWPSs Photovoltaic energy conversion is one of the best ways toharvest the solar energy [14,15]. Many researchers around the world have investigated the performance of SPWPSs. A summaryof the reported investigations in different regions is consolidatedin this section.  2.1. Working principle of SPWPSs SPWPSs consist of solar photovoltaic panels, a motor and apump, which is depicted in Fig. 1. Depending on the systemdesign, it requires storage batteries and a charge regulator. Themotor is chosen according to the power requirement and the typeof current output of the system. If the motor uses alternativecurrent (AC), it is necessary to install a direct current (DC) to ACconverter. Battery-less SPWPSs are low cost, which requires lessmaintenance compared to battery powered systems. However, thestorage batteries have the advantage of providing consistentperformance during lean and off sunshine hours. The addition of a water storage tank in SPWPS is more economical than batterystorage backup. The use of solar photovoltaic energy is consideredto be a primary resource for the countries located in tropicalregions, where direct solar radiation may reach up to 1000 W/m 2 .A brief discussion on the studies reported with the performance,the types of motors and pumps, the optimal sizing of the photo-voltaic panels, the cooling of the solar photovoltaic panels, thecontrol of SPWPS, economic and environmental considerations arediscussed in this sub section.  2.2. Performance of SPWPSs Table 1 consolidates the review of the reported investigationson the performance of SPWPSs. In related work, Pande et al. [16]designed, developed and tested the performance of SPWPSs fordrip irrigation under Indian meteorological conditions. In theirsystem, 900 W photovoltaic arrays and a 800 W DC mono blockpump were used. It was reported that SPWPSs can deliver water at SUNCONTROLLERBATTERYPUMPWATERSUMPTO IRRIGATION SOLARPHOTOVOLATICCELLS Fig. 1.  Layout of SPWPSs. C Gopal et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 25 (2013) 351 –  370 352  70  –  100 kPa pressure at the delivery side with a discharge of 3.4  –  3.8 l/h through each dripper during different hours of theday. A payback period of approximately 6 years was reported intheir work. Similar innovative SPWPSs using a modular centrifugalpump with variable speed and multi activated stages have beendeveloped and tested under Indian meteorological conditions [17].It has been reported that SPWPSs are more suitable for low andmedium head water pumping in areas where grid connectedelectricity is not readily available. Additionally, they concludedthat SPWPSs are economical in operation only during peaksunshine hours. In a similar investigation, Chaurey et al. [18]discussed the  󿬁 eld experiences of SPWPSs in India. The systeminvestigated in their work was continuously operated, except for afew loose electrical wire connections, for more than 2 yearswithout a major technical break-down. SPWPSs have been pro-vided as a replacement for the existing hand pumps. The averagedaily water output of SPWPSs over a month is suitable for a ruralwater supply to a typical Indian village. They suggested thatSPWPSs are feasible for a community of 500 persons if handpumps are provided as a back-up system. Similarly, the environ-mental impacts of the SPWPSs are investigated in terms of theclean development mechanism (CDM) [19]. SPWPSs could be of interest under the CDM because they directly reduce the GHGwhile contributing to sustainable rural development. It was con-cluded that there is a vast potential of CO 2  mitigation by usingSPWPSs in India.Similarly, in Egypt, Mahmoud and Nather [20] investigated theperformance of SPWPSs using batteries for sprinkling and drippingirrigation systems. It has been concluded that SPWPSs can be usedef  󿬁 ciently for water pumping in agriculture sectors. The cost of thewater pumped by photovoltaic systems is much less than that of water pumped using conventional grid connected and dieselpowered pumping methods. They also concluded that SPWPSscan operate more effectively compared to other traditional irriga-tion systems during potential sunshine hours. The SPWPSs alsoimprove the quality of life and promote socio-economic develop-ment in rural area. In related work, Mankbadi and Ayad [21]discussed the performance of small capacity direct SPWPS underthe meteorological conditions of Egypt and reported that smallcapacity direct SPWPSs are most suitable for domestic waterpumping applications. In a similar attempt, Qoaider and Stein-brecht [22] investigated the technical feasibility of SPWPS in theNew Kalabsha village in the Lake Nasser region of southern Egypt.In their work, the technical design and the life cycle cost of theSPWPSs were calculated. The pumping system was designed topump 111,000 m 3 of water daily to irrigate 1260 ha and also topower the adjacent households. Their studies concluded thatSPWPSs are an economically competitive option for supplyingenergy to off-grid communities in arid regions compared to dieselgeneration systems. In a similar investigation, the performance of SPWPS was assessed both theoretically and experimentally [23]. Thesystem consists of a photovoltaic generator, a DC  –  DC converter, a DC  –  AC inverter, a submersed type motor-pump and a storage tank. It hasbeen reported that the in 󿬂 uence of solar radiation will affect theglobal ef  󿬁 ciency of the pump. The maximum performance of thepump was reached during the middle of the day. However, theperformance of the system was degraded due to meteorologicalparameters such as the solar intensity, the ambient temperature,the wind velocity and the relative humidity. They also con 󿬁 rmed thatthe theoretical simulation results are close to the experimentallypredicted results with acceptable errors.Kou et al. [24] developed an analytical model for predicting thelong-term performance of a direct coupled SPWPS for six differentlocations in the USA (Albuquerque, New Mexico, Madison, WisconsinSeattle and Washington) and compared it with the TRNSYS model. Itwas reported that the model predicts the performance with a rootmean square difference of 3  –  6% compared to the TRNSYS programusing TMY weather data. They also reported that the new modelproposed in their work can be used for designing and forecasting thelong-term performance of SPWPSs over monthly or annual periodsunder typical US climates. Moreover, a similar performance investi-gation of SPWPS for remote locations of the United States has beenreported [25]. The experimental setup used in their work is illu-strated in Fig. 2. It was reported that SPWPSs have a goodperformance in terms of productivity, reliability, and cost effective-ness. SPWPSs could considerably reduce the CO 2  emissions over their25-year life span compared to conventional grid connected or dieselpowered systems. Additionally, Meah et al. [26] presented theopportunities and challenges of SPWPSs. They suggested that theeconomy and the reliability of SPWPSs make them more feasible and  Table 1 Summary of investigations on SPWPSs.Authors [Reference] Country Applications ConclusionPande et al. [16] India IrrigationapplicationsPack back period of 6 years was reportedBhave [17] India IrrigationapplicationsSolar photovoltaic pumping systems are suitable for medium head domestic water pumping applicationsMahmoud andNather [20]Egypt Drip irrigation Solar photovoltaic water pumps are operating more effective than other traditional water pumping systemsHamrouni et al. [23] Domestic waterpumpingThe performance of the systems is highly affected by ambient parameters such solar intensity, ambienttemperature, wind velocityMeah et al. [25,26] USA Domestic water pumpingThe solar photovoltaic water pumping systems could reduce the CO 2  emissions considerably over 25 year lifetimeThe system is more suitable for rural areas facing shortage of electricityChandratilleke andHo [27]Singapore Domestic waterpumpingIt was concluded that overall ef  󿬁 ciency of the photovoltaic water pumping system was improved by bettersystem design and load matchingBadescu [28] Domestic waterpumpingThe presence of storage tank will improve the performance of the photovoltaic water pumping systemsYu et al. [29] China Irrigation Concluded that photovoltaic water pumping is most suitable for grass land conservationHrayshat andAl-Soud [32] Jordan Water pumping Identi 󿬁 ed the potential of solar energy for water pumpingAl Ali et al. [33] SaduiArabiaIrrigation The authors developed automatic irrigation system, which optimize the quantity of water required for irrigationMokeddem [35] Algeria Irrigation Directly coupled photovoltaic water pumping systems are suitable for low head irrigation applicationsHamidat [36] Algeria Irrigation Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is suitable for small scale irrigation applications C Gopal et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 25 (2013) 351 –  370  353  economical in rural locations facing a shortage of electricity. SPWPSshave been proven to be a technically and economically feasibleoption in developed nations such as the USA, Germany, Australia, etc.In another work, Chandratilleke and Ho [27] experimentallystudied the performance of a 1.14 kW SPWPS using a 860 Wcentrifugal pump. They also developed a simulation model forvalidating the experimental results. It was reported that the overallef  󿬁 ciency of the SPWPS is 1.6%, which was found to be lower due tothe low energy conversion ef  󿬁 ciencies with photovoltaic systems.The simulation results were reported tobe closer tothe experimentalresults with acceptable deviations. They also suggest that the overallef  󿬁 ciency of the SPWPS can be improved by good system design andload matching. The storage tank was introduced to improve thestability of SPWPS. In related work, a time dependent SPWPS modelconsisting of a photovoltaic array, a battery, a storage water tank, aDC motor and a centrifugal pump was developed by Badescu [28]. Ithas been reported that a storage water tank improves the stability of thepumpingoperation.The fractionof powersuppliedby the batteryis stored in the form of the gravitational energy of water, whichproves that both the battery and the water storage tank increase theoperation stability of SPWPSs. Similarly, the performance of a solarpowered irrigation system was assessed for sustaining pasture landsinarid regionsof NorthWestChina[29].Itwas reportedthat SPWPSs for irrigation applications are a cost effective system, which con-tributes to grassland conservation. They also suggested that solarpowered irrigation can create considerable opportunities in promot-ing local development.The performance characteristics of SPWPSs in thirteen wellsunder the meteorological conditions of Jordan were investigatedby Hammad [30]. A laboratory SPWPS was developed, and the yearround performance parameters such as the daily pumping capa-city and the ef  󿬁 ciency were analyzed. The monthly pumping factorvalues were calculated by the experimental results. A designmodel was established based on the pumping factor as a functionof the solar characteristics. In a similar work, a SPWPS using aninduction motor pump, which is capable of supplying a dailyaverage of 50 m 3 at 37 m head, was developed by Daud andMahmoud [31]. The system was installed in a desert well in Jordan, where the average available solar radiation is 5.5 kW h/m 3 /day. Long-term  󿬁 eld testing of the system showed that thesystem is reliable and has an overall ef  󿬁 ciency exceeding 3%,which is comparable to the other studies reported with highestef  󿬁 ciencies for SPWPS. In a similar attempt, Hrayshat and Al-Soud[32] studied the suitability of SPWPSs at ten different locationsin Jordan. They identi 󿬁 ed four locations (Queira, H-4, H-5, andTaf  󿬁 eleh) where the solar intensity availability is adequate forwater pumping applications. Another three regions (include RasMuneef, Mafraq, and Hasa) have a moderate solar energy source.The remaining three locations (Deir Alla, Baqura, and Wadi Yabis)have poor solar intensity, where SPWPSs are not suitable.Similarly, in Saudi Arabia, Al Ali et al. [33] developed anautomatic solar photovoltaic source irrigation system and testedits performance. Their system consists of controller, control valves,photovoltaic panels, back up batteries and sensors. Their devel-oped system is capable of irrigating  󿬁 elds at a pre-speci 󿬁 ed time,day of the week and duration. It can also automatically irrigate the 󿬁 eld if the soil is dried below a certain moisture level. This type of automated system will optimize the quantity of water required fora particular crop and for a speci 󿬁 ed area. A similar performanceinvestigation on SPWPSs using a helical pump for a deep well wasmade under the meteorological conditions of Saudi Arabia [34].Four different photovoltaic con 󿬁 gurations such as 6 serial mod-ules  3 parallel rows, 12 serial modules  2 parallel rows, 8 serialmodules  3 parallel rows, and 6 serial modules  4 parallel rowswere investigated in their work. Their results reported that the8 serial modules  3 parallel con 󿬁 guration provided the optimalenergy with a maximum water discharge of 22 m 3 /day.In another work, Mokeddem et al. [35] studied the perfor-mance of a direct coupled SPWPS under the meteorologicalconditions of Algeria over a period of four months. The systemperformance was monitored under different climatic conditionswith two static head con 󿬁 gurations. Their system is composed of a1.5 kWp photovoltaic array, a DC motor and a centrifugal pump. Ithas been reported that directly coupled SPWPSs are suitable forlow head irrigation in remote areas, which are not connected tothe national grid and where access to water comes as a  󿬁 rstpriority issue. Their system runs with low maintenance due to theabsence of battery and electronic control. They also reported thatdirectly coupled SPWPSs attain the steady state quickly. Similarinvestigations on the electrical and hydraulic performance of asmall-scale photovoltaic powered irrigation system were per-formed under the meteorological conditions of the Algerian Sahararegion [36]. The SPWPSs used for irrigation applications aredepicted in Fig. 3. Approximately sixty SPWPSs were installed inthe remote regions to supply water for domestic use and theirrigation of four crops, namely, wheat, potatoes, tomatoes andsun 󿬂 owers. It has been reported that SPWPSs are suitable forsmall-scale irrigation in the Algerian Sahara regions. SPWPSs couldeasily cover the daily water need rates for small-scale irrigationwith an area of less than 2 ha. Similarly, Boutelhig et al. [37]studied the performance of SPWPSs with four different con 󿬁 gura-tions (2 parallel (P)  2 series (S), 2P  1S,1P  2S and 1 module) atdifferent heads between 10 m and 40 m under the meteorologicalconditions of the Algerian desert area. It was reported that thecombination of two photovoltaic array con 󿬁 gurations (2P  1S)and (1P  2S) is suitable to provide the optimum energy. The PV ArrayInventer Collecting basin Surface pumpWell reservoir Classic irrigation Control valve Fig. 3.  Schematic layout of photovoltaic irrigtion system [38]. Well Casing Submersible Pump Bore well Float SwitchTank Water pipe line Solar Photovoltaic cells   Controller Electrical cableSun Fig. 2.  Layout of solar photovoltaic water pumping system using sumbersiblepump [25]. C Gopal et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 25 (2013) 351 –  370 354
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