Factors and Norms Influencing Unpaid Care Work: Household survey evidence from five rural communities in Colombia, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe | Critical Theory | Sociological Theories

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In order to address ‘heavy’ and ‘unequal’ care work and to raise the profile of care as a cross-cutting development issue, Oxfam and its partners implemented a baseline Household Care Survey (HCS) in five countries in which the WE-Care project was active. In November/December 2015, a revised version of the HCS was carried out in these same communities. As a follow-up survey, the 2015 HCS monitored change and impact from the project's interventions and gathered evidence on ‘what works’ to address care work in specific contexts. The aim is to generate evidence that helps local organizations address problematic aspects of care work, contributing to women’s ability to participate, lead and benefit from development initiatives. This evidence is then used to develop project interventions that recognize, reduce and redistribute existing unpaid care work within the household, the immediate community (civil society), the market (private sector) and the state authority (central and local governments).
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  12     Factors and norms influencing unpaid care work Household survey evidence from five rural communities in Colombia, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe Authors: Leyla Karimli, Emma Samman, Lucia Rost, Thalia Kidder we-carewomen’seconomicempowermentand care  2   FACTORS AND NORMS INFLUENCING UNPAID CARE WORK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people were involved in the various stages of the Household Care Survey. Oxfam worked very closely with partner organizations which helped to develop and carry out the survey, and provided inputs that helped to shape its analysis. They include Asociación Nacional de Mujeres Campesinas e Indígenas de Colombia (ANMUCIC) and Fundación San Isidro (FSI) in Colombia, Rift Valley Children and Women Development Organization (RCWDO) in Ethiopia, Al Mujadilah Development Foundation (AMDF) in the Philippines, Women and Rural Development Network (WORUDET) and Uganda Women’s Network (UWONET) in Uganda, and Bethany Project, Bekezela Home Based Care and Umzingwane AIDS Network in Zimbabwe. In each country, research consultants coordinated the data collection processes with dozens of enumerators; our thanks to Andres Mauricio Mendoza (Colombia), Praxis Consulting PLC (Ethiopia), Ferdinand ‘Derek’ Deriquito (the Philippines), Maude Maugisha (Uganda), and Unity Chifupa and Busiswe Moyo (Zimbabwe). We are grateful to the Oxfam staff who commissioned and coordinated the WE-Care research: Nadia Bazan Londoño, Nebyu Mehary, Rahel Bekele, Helina Alemarye, Lyca Sarenas, Joselyn Bigirwa, Roselyn Nyatsanza and Matthew Stenson. In addition, we thank the many Oxfam staff who contributed to research design, implementation and data analysis: Imogen Davies, Simone Lombardini, Hannah Newth, Jane Remme and Emily Tomkys. Further, Sandrine Koissy-Kpein Dahouet-Boigny provided a comprehensive review. Oxfam has enormously valued our collaborations with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Al Mujadilah Development Foundation (AMDF) and the Hewlett Foundation, and discussions at the conference of the International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE). We would like to acknowledge the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation for its generous financial support of this research, and particularly the assistance of Program Officer Alfonsina Peñaloza. The report’s findings and conclusions do not necessarily reflect the funder’s views. Lastly, we extend our sincere thanks to all the participants in the research who took time for the interview and shared their experiences and views with us. Authors affiliations Leyla Karimli, Assistant Professor of Social Policy, UCLA LuskinEmma Samma, Research Associate, Overseas Development Institute (ODI)Thalia Kidder, Senior Advisor, Women’s Economic Rights, OxfamLucia Rost, DPhil Candidate Oxford University Department of International Development  CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 42. CONTEXT AND BASELINE 63. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 104. FINDINGS FROM THE 2015 HOUSEHOLD CARE SURVEY 14 a. Profile of Surveyed Households 14b. Time Use of Adult Women and Men 15c. Factors Influencing care work: recognition of care, women’s decision-making ability, public services, time-saving equipment, social norms 21d. Participation in WE-Care activities 28 5. COMPARING CHANGE OVER TIME IN ETHIOPIA AND ZIMBABWE 306. CONCLUSIONS 36BIBLIOGRAPHY 37ANNEX 1 THE 2015 HOUSEHOLD CARE SURVEY 39ANNEX 2 THE DATA COLLECTION PROCESS AND SURVEY DETAILS 39ANNEX 3 VARIABLES USED IN THE ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY 44ANNEX 4 TABLES OF DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 47NOTES 60   FACTORS AND NORMS INFLUENCING UNPAID CARE WORK  3  4   FACTORS AND NORMS INFLUENCING UNPAID CARE WORK 1. INTRODUCTION Care work is essential for personal well-being and for maintaining societies. But across the world, it is overwhelmingly the preserve of women, and it often restricts their opportunities for education, employment, politics and leisure. While interest in assessing care work in development policy has increased, there remains a lack of understanding of the full spectrum of women’s work, paid and unpaid. Development practitioners are increasingly seeking ways to measure care and women’s empowerment, and for evidence to advocate for government investment in care services. Oxfam has long worked on recognizing and addressing care work in programmes promoting gender justice, livelihoods and waged workers’ rights. For several years, Oxfam GB has made increased efforts to address ‘heavy’ and ‘unequal’ care work and to raise the profile of care as a cross-cutting development issue. This involves supporting local organizations and women’s groups to raise public recognition of care work, advocating for investments to reduce the unnecessary drudgery of care, and redistributing care responsibilities more equitably.Building on these past efforts, the Women’s Economic Empowerment and Care (WE-Care) initiative started in 2013. The WE-Care project, Evidence for Influencing Change   was launched in 2014. Funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, this project aims to produce new methodologies and context-specific evidence about care work in order to influence existing development initiatives and policy. This research fills an important gap. While the many national time-use surveys highlight the contribution of women and girls to care work, they are less useful in designing context-specific interventions.The project involves research and interventions in selected communities in districts of six countries: Colombia, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. 1  In each context, WE-Care project activities take place within an existing ‘host programme’ with broader development objectives, such as women’s leadership, agricultural enterprises and markets, or the rights of people living with HIV/AIDS. The project’s aim is to generate evidence that helps local organizations to address problematic aspects of care work, with the intention of contributing to women’s ability to participate, lead and benefit from development initiatives. The evidence is then used to develop project interventions that recognize, reduce and redistribute existing unpaid care work within the household, the immediate community (civil society), the market (private sector) and the state authority (central and local governments). More specifically, project activities have included baseline research, interventions to address care work – here called care ‘strategies’ – and follow-up research to monitor and evaluate change. In the initial research phase (2014), qualitative focus group exercises called Rapid Care Analysis (RCA) and a quantitative Household Care Survey (HCS) were implemented in five of the project countries – all but Malawi, where a different programme was followed. 2  The RCA enables a rapid assessment of household and care workloads in local communities. It provides women, men and practitioners with a space to identify and prioritize practical solutions to address care work collaboratively. The RCA was implemented before the survey and it informed adjustments to the questionnaire. As a baseline, the HCS helped to document the existing conditions, which in turn influenced the design of care interventions. It also helped to develop questions to measure more accurately the extent and division of care-work hours in households, and perceptions about care and care roles. The HCS data were collected between June and December 2014 by local research consultants and in collaboration with partner organizations. 3  The baseline research helped to develop strategies to address care work in the communities. For about one year (2015), local organizations supported by Oxfam have implemented different interventions in the project areas in the five countries: (1) to reduce the difficulty of unpaid care tasks – such as fuel and water collection, cooking, washing and dependant care; (2) to promote positive social norms about care and care roles; and (3) to advocate for the redistribution of unequal care responsibilities from women to men, and from poor families to state-provided and employer-provided services, equipment and infrastructure. In November/December 2015, a revised version of the HCS was implemented in the communities. As a follow-up survey, the HCS monitored change and impact, and gathered evidence on ‘what works’ to address care work in specific contexts. Learning from the first round of data collection led to improvements in the survey instruments; for example, in changes to the questions on social norms and children’s time use.This report summarizes the findings of the follow-up round of the HCS data collection in the districts in Colombia, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The report proceeds as follows. Section 2 outlines the motivation for this work and the issues that the WE-Care surveys focus on. Section 3 outlines the approach and propositions that guide the research design and analysis. The fourth section describes the findings of the 2015 HCS in three areas: (1)
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