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Eskuri - Rupert 1 The Effect of Sitting Position on the Heart Rate Recovery of Cross Country Runners Emily Eskuri and Celeste Rupert Macomb Mathematics Science Technology Center Advanced Biology 12B Mr. Estapa / Mrs. Cybulski / Mrs. Dewey 19 December 20
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  Eskuri - Rupert 1 The Effect of Sitting Position on the Heart Rate Recovery of Cross Country Runners Emily Eskuri and Celeste Rupert Macomb Mathematics Science Technology Center Advanced Biology 12B Mr. Estapa / Mrs. Cybulski / Mrs. Dewey 19 December 2016   Eskuri - Rupert 2 The Effect of Sitting Position on the Heart Rate Recovery of Cross Country Runners The objective of this experiment was to determine which sitting  position —    slouching with the forearms on the thighs, upright with the back straight, or upright with the hands on head    —    will most benefit the heart rate recovery, or HRR, of cross country runners. A fast HRR is highly beneficial to athletes in sports that have multiple events that happen close to each other in time such as track or swimming. An athlete with a HRR that is higher than their competitors is less fatigued during the later events in a competition. To find the best position, male cross country teams and their members volunteered to participate and each member ran an eight hundred meter distance three times wearing a Wahoo Blue HR chest strap heart rate monitor. Directly after each eight hundred meter run, the participant’s heart rate, HR, would be recorded, then he would sit in one of the positions for a minute. After that minute his HR would be recorded again, and would have five additional minutes of recovery time before another trial. HRR was found by calculating the difference between the two recorded heart rates. It was hypothesized that the hands on head position would have the highest HRR since it is the suggested position for athletes. However, after a series of two-sample t tests and confidence intervals were performed on the data collected, the data showed that the position that had the highest HRR was the slouching position, the position with the lowest HRR was the hands on head position, and the straight position was between those two. This is due to the slouching position increasing the diaphragm's zone of apposition and decreasing the effect that gravity has on the body.   Eskuri - Rupert 3 Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………....………………..1 Review of Literature   ………………………………………..……….…………...…................ 3 Problem Statement…………………………………....…………...…………….………...7 Experimental Design………………………………………………...………………….…8 Data and Observations………………………………………………...…………………11 Data Analysis and Interpretation…………………………………....…………………...20 Conclusion……………………………………....………...…………………………..…30 Acknowledgements…………………………...……………….….……...………………35 Appendix A……………………………………………………...……………………….36 Appendix B…………………………………………………………....………………....38 Works Cited………………………………………………………...……...…………….39   Eskuri - Rupert 4 Introduction  Many people have ever watched or participated in a sport that requires  participation in multiple events that are close together in time. Some sports that relate to time constraints are swimming and track where athletes may have to participate in events directly after one another with little to no rest in between. This is similar to taking a hard run around a neighborhood, stopping for a moment at an intersection to let a car pass, and then continuing the hard run. During that second part of the run, the runner will be more fatigued than when he or she first started running due to an increase in activity and heart rate. The heart can recover faster when the body is resting in certain positions, which decreases the fatigue during the second half. Some coaches and trainers suggest that the optimal heart rate recovery, or HRR, position is setting the hands on top of the head. The respiratory system opens larger and allows for air to pass through. Consequently, there are other positions that can be used to recover. There are studies of supine recovery, sitting recovery, and upright recovery. A few positions within those broad categories have been tested as well.. The purpose of this experiment was to expand the knowledge of sitting positions and determine which one would give the quickest HRR after an activity. The three sitting positions tested were sitting slouched over, sitting upright, and sitting with the hands on top of the head, the suggested position. Endurance activities allow for more consistent heart rates from person to person while the activity is being done. Cross country and swim athletics are endurance sports, however, in order to check HRR, heart rate monitors were necessary to provide an
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