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CHARACTERIZATION OF E-WASTE : RARE EARTH ELEMENT IDENTIFICATION MUHAMAD ARIFF SHAZLAN BIN ROSLAN Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Chemical Engineering (Pure) Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG JANUARY 2015 ©MUHAMAD ARIFF SHAZLAN BIN ROSLAN (2015)
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    III CHARACTERIZATION OF E-WASTE : RARE EARTH ELEMENT IDENTIFICATION MUHAMAD ARIFF SHAZLAN BIN ROSLAN Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Chemical Engineering (Pure) Faculty of Chemical & Natural Resources Engineering UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG JANUARY 2015 ©MUHAMAD ARIFF SHAZLAN BIN ROSLAN (2015)    VIII ABSTRACT Rare Earth Element (REE) or rare earth metal is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table. Rare earth element are widely used in many consumer electronics products such as smartphones, led monitor, powerful magnets in electric drive motors and etc. This research describes the study of the coating powder leaching from computer monitor scraps to obtain liquor which can be treated by hydrometallurgical techniques to extract the metals. Television(TV) tubes and computer monitors exist as coating powder that contain some rare earth elements(REEs). The recovery of the REEs from electronics scraps is very important in lieu of the economic and concerns. Leaching is a method of separation between solid and liquid. To separate the components, acid solvents such as nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulphuric acid can be used. The results of this study pointed out the technical viability of the recovery of the metals. The coating powder used in this study was obtained by manually scraping the inner surfaces of computer monitor. Sulphuric (H 2 SO 4 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydrochloric (HCl) acids will be used in the leaching experiments. All solutions are analytical grade reagents and diluted with distilled water. The extract sample will be characterized by X-ray diffractometer. From the X-ray difractometer, the data shows that LCD contain large value of indium. The conclusion that can be made from this study is for leaching process to extract rare earth elements, hydrochloric acid is the best solvent that can be used. Besides, in order to make sure the leaching process is effective, higher molarity of acid solvent is needed.  Key words: Environmental, Hydrometallurgy, Leaching process, Rare earth element,  X- ray diffraction      IX ABSTRAK Logam nadir bumi adalah salah satu daripada satu set tujuh belas unsur-unsur kimia dalam jadual berkala. Unsur nadir bumi banyak digunakan dalam banyak produk elektronik pengguna seperti telefon pintar, membawa monitor, magnet berkuasa di motor pemacu elektrik dan lain-lain. Kertas kerja ini menerangkan kajian tentang larut lesap serbuk salutan dari komputer monitor terbuang untuk mendapatkan cecair yang  boleh dirawat dengan teknik hidrometalurgi untuk mengekstrak logam. Televisyen (TV) tiub dan monitor komputer wujud dalam serbuk salutan yang mengandung beberapa unsur-unsur nadir bumi. Pemulihan unsur nadir bumi dari sisa elektronik adalah sangat  penting dalam sektor ekonomi. Larut lesap adalah kaedah pemisahan antara pepejal dan cecair. Untuk memisahkan komponen, pelarut asid seperti asid nitrik, asid hidroklorik, dan asid sulfurik boleh digunakan. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan daya maju teknikal dalam pemulihan logam. Serbuk salutan yang digunakan dalam kajian ini diperolehi secara manual dengan mengikis permukaan dalaman komputer monitor. Sulfurik (H 2 SO 4 ), asid nitrik (HNO 3 ) dan hidroklorik asid (HCl) akan digunakan dalam eksperimen larut lesap. Semua larutan adalah gred reagenyang saintifik dan akn dicairkan dengan air suling. Sampel ekstrak akan dianalisa menggunakan X-ray diffractometer. Dari data yang diperolehi dari difractometer X-ray, ia menunjukkan  bahawa LCD mengandungi jumlah indium yang sangat tinggi. Kesimpulan yang boleh dibuat daripada kajian ini adalah, untuk proses larut lesap untuk mengeluarkan unsur-unsur nadir bumi, asid hidroklorik adalah pelarut terbaik yang boleh digunakan. Selain itu, bagi memastikan proses larut lesap adalah berkesan, kepekatan asid pelarut yang tinggi diperlukan. Kata kunci: Alam Sekitar, Hidrometalurgi , Proses Larut Lesap , Unsur Nadir Bumi , Pembelauan Sinar-X    X TABLE OF CONTENTS SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATION  ............................................................................... IV   STUDENT’S DECLARATION  ...................................................................................... V    Dedication  ....................................................................................................................... VI   ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. VII   ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................. VIII   TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................. X   LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................ XI   LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................... XII   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................... XIII   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................... XIV   1   INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 1   1.1   Background ................................................................................................ 1   1.2   Motivation and statement of problem ........................................................ 2   1.3   Objectives ................................................................................................... 3   1.4   Scope of this research ................................................................................. 4   1.5   Main contribution of this work ................................................................... 4   1.6   Organisation of this thesis .......................................................................... 5   2   LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................... 6   2.1   Overview .................................................................................................... 6   2.1.1    Rare Earth Elements  ................................................................................. 7   2.1.2    Rare Earth Applications  ........................................................................... 9   2.1.3    Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)  ................................................................ 12   2.1.4 Europium  ................................................................................................. 13   2.1.5 Recovery Of Rare Earth Element   ............................................................ 15   2.1.6    Separation Of Rare Earth Element   ......................................................... 15   3   MATERIALS AND METHODS ............................................................. 18   3.1   Overview .................................................................................................. 18   3.2 X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) ........................................................................... 21   3.2.1 Types of X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) ........................................................ 23   4   RESULT AND DISCUSSION ................................................................. 24   4.1   RELEVANT OF LCD CRUSHING ........................................................ 24   4.2   EFFECTS OF SOLVENT ........................................................................ 25   4.3   EFFECTS OF MOLARITY ..................................................................... 29   4.4   INDIUM ................................................................................................... 32   5   APPENDIX .............................................................................................. 34   6   REFERENCES ......................................................................................... 51  
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