From the Ground Up: Gender and conflict analysis in Yemen

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 57
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Documents

Published:

Views: 11 | Pages: 57

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
Conflicts and humanitarian crises affect men, women, girls, and boys differently due to their different societal roles and the deep-rooted socio-cultural and economic inequalities which become exacerbated during crises. Men and boys form the vast majority of direct victims of armed conflict and associated impacts like forced recruitment or arbitrary detention. Women bear the burdens of running the households under extreme stress and are often exposed to different forms of gender-based violence. During emergencies, women and girls become more vulnerable as basic services collapse and livelihoods diminish. In order to better understand the impact of armed conflict on men, women, boys, and girls, and the changes that have resulted in gender roles and relationships at household and community levels since the onset of conflict in March 2015, Oxfam, CARE and GenCap in Yemen collaborated to collect and analyse available data to further inform immediate humanitarian response as well as longer-term programming in Yemen.
Transcript
  RESEARCH REPORT OCTOBER 2016 Women buying food at a market in Taiz. ©Thana Faroq/Oxfam, 2014 FROM THE GROUND UP: GENDER AND CONFLICT ANALYSIS IN YEMEN Conflicts and humanitarian crises affect men, women, girls, and boys differently due to their different societal roles and the deep-rooted socio-cultural and economic inequalities which become exacerbated during crises. Men and boys form the vast majority of direct victims of armed conflict and associated impacts like forced recruitment or arbitrary detention. Women bear the burdens of running the households under extreme stress and are often exposed to different forms of gender-based violence. During emergencies, women and girls become more vulnerable as basic services collapse and livelihoods diminish. In order to better understand the impact of armed conflict on men, women, boys, and girls, and the changes that have resulted in gender roles and relationships at household and community levels since the onset of conflict in March 2015, Oxfam, CARE and GenCap in Yemen collaborated to collect and analyse available data to further inform immediate humanitarian response as well as longer-term programming in Yemen. The assessment covered the governorates of Hajjah, Taiz, Abyan and Aden. The report should be interpreted in conjunction with other assessment reports. The statements in this report do not reflect the position of CARE International, Oxfam Great Britain, or the Gender Standby Capacity Project (GenCap) of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC). The report only reflects the findings and analysis by the assessment team.  CONTENTS Executive summary 3   1   Introduction 4   2   Context 6   3   Gender roles and relations 13   4   Capacities and vulnerabilities 19   5   Participation in decision making 29   6   Access to services 33   Acknowledgements 56   2 From the Ground Up: Gender and conflict analysis in Yemen  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Gender relations in Yemen are shaped by diverse religious, cultural, social and political traditions. They are complex, and vary across the north and south of the country, between urban and rural areas, and between different tribes and generations. Historically, women in Yemen have had much less power in society than men. The escalation of the armed conflict in Yemen since March 2015 has created one of the biggest humanitarian crises worldwide. It is likely that the entire population of Yemen will be affected if conflict continues at the current trajectory. In particular, conditions for Yemeni women and girls are deteriorating as the conflict drags on. While the situation in Yemen is rapidly evolving, a general pattern is evident of deteriorating gender relations and the marginalization of women from participation and leadership in decision-making forums. Due to deep-rooted socio-cultural and economic inequalities at home and in their wider community, conflicts affect men, women, girls, and boys differently. Men and boys make up the vast majority of direct victims of armed conflict, forced recruitment and arbitrary detention, while women and girls – who in normal times bear the burden of running the households and are exposed to different forms of gender-based violence (GBV) – become more vulnerable during emergencies. They are more exposed to malnutrition because they have limited access to resources. They work extra time to increase their income or improve their access to services. Despite these challenges, humanitarian crises can provide opportunities for the promotion of gender equality and transformative gender relationships, because people’s life circumstances change along with their gender roles. During the recent conflict, several examples have been documented of women’s coping mechanisms, resilience and ability to carve out spaces of agency – hence contradicting the predominant portrayal of Yemeni women as passive victims. Women’s increasing roles in distributing community-level humanitarian assistance, hygiene promotion, leading on GBV protection projects and facilitating women’s access to services, need to be further nurtured to expand their resilience and peacebuilding potential. In order to better understand the impact of armed conflict on men, women, boys, and girls, and changes in gender roles and relationships at household and community levels since the onset of conflict in March 2015, Oxfam, CARE and GenCap in Yemen collaborated to collect and analyse available data, with a view to further informing immediate humanitarian response as well as longer-term programming in Yemen. Sound understanding of the differential impact of the conflict on women, men, boys, and girls, helps us adapt our programming to specific life circumstances, capacities and vulnerabilities of men and women, but also to recognize entry points for transformative gender-specific actions that will respond to inequality and injustice in the future. The assessment built on CARE’s and Oxfam’s gender assessment tools, and used a combined methodology including a secondary data review, 544 household interviews, 40 focus group discussions, and 32 in-depth interviews with ‘key informants’ – activists and leaders. The assessment was supplemented by case studies/stories collected from participants and civil society to validate and exemplify the research findings. The geographical scope of the assessment included the areas in Yemen with the most severe needs – Aden, Taiz, Hajjah and  Abyan governorates. The thematic scope of the assessment covered four gender-specific domains, including a) gender roles and relations, b) capacities and vulnerabilities, c) participation in decision making (at community and intra-household levels), and d) access to services and assistance. The report concludes with guidance on how to implement humanitarian response and longer-term programming in a way that better supports women’s and men’s, boys’ and girls’ different needs and aspirations, strengthens gender equity and equality, and contributes to the long-term transformation of power imbalances between women and men. From the Ground Up: Gender and conflict analysis in Yemen 3  1 INTRODUCTION Gender inequality and the specific barriers faced by Yemeni women and girls in achieving their full potential have long been recognized as both underlying and direct causes of food insecurity, malnutrition and poverty in Yemen. While the Yemen crisis is evolving rapidly, a general pattern of deteriorating gender relations and the marginalization of women from participation and leadership in decision-making forums appear evident. Advances made in recent years to address gender inequality in Yemen are at risk of being reversed. Such advances include recognition of the importance of including women in peace talks as a driver for peace and security in a country that has long been affected by multi-faceted conflicts. Secondly, there are reports of increasing marginalization of women as well as increasing levels of gender-based violence (GBV), and fears have been expressed that this will serve to further reinforce gender inequality in the long-term reconstruction phase. BACKGROUND  A scoping study was conducted by CARE and Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Gender Capacity Standby Project (GenCap) to review and assess available information on the impact of the conflict on gender roles and relations, and the consequently different needs of women, girls, boys, and men. 1  It found that while there was good pre-conflict information on gender issues in Yemen, most assessments conducted since March 2015 have been ‘gender blind’. The study concluded that further gender and generational analysis is needed to ensure that humanitarian programming in Yemen is aware of and responsive to changes in gender relations, so that it meets the different needs of women, men, boys, and girls. Humanitarian programmes in all sectors need to work to safeguard the progress on gender equality that was made prior to the emergency, continue advancing that progress, and lay the foundations for sustainable and gender-equitable recovery and reconstruction, and for the participation of women in peace talks and in the protection of their social and economic rights. METHODOLOGY The overall objective of the assessment was to inform immediate humanitarian response and longer-term programming in Yemen, by identifying and documenting changes in gender roles and relationships at household and community levels since March 2015. The project was implemented between 10 February and 9 May 2016. Field data collection was implemented between 28 March and 15 April 2016. The assessment built on CARE’s and Oxfam’s gender assessment tools, and used a combined methodology including a secondary data review, household interviews, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews with or ‘key informants’, and case studies/stories. The methodology is innovative in so far as it systematically triangulates these qualitative and quantitative data sets. The full secondary data review report is available in a standalone document. The geographical scope of the assessment included the areas in Yemen with severe needs – governorates of Aden (Dar Saad and Al Boriqah districts), Taiz (Shmayateen and Taziha districts), Hajjah (Abs and Shafar districts) and Abyan (Zonjobar and Khanfer districts). The assessment obtained a sample of 544 household interviews, including 280 female (51%) and 264 male interviewees (49%), with an equal number of interviews in urban and rural settings. Urban settings were divided into four geographical quadrants. In each quadrant, the gender- 4 From the Ground Up: Gender and conflict analysis in Yemen
Recommended
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks