handout fg ch 1 | Fuck | Verb

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Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd. 1 1. ELEMENTS UNDERLYING FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR By the end of this unit you will:  know why you learn functional grammar  understand the relation between text and context  understand how language is realized in its levels  be able to explain the function of language The influence of context Are we aware that the language around us is not always the same? It changes accordin
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   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   1 1. ELEMENTS UNDERLYING FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR By the end of this unit you will:    know why you learn functional grammar    understand the relation between text and context    understand how language is realized in its levels    be able to explain the function of language The influence of context Are we aware that the language around us is not always the same? It changes according to different situations. At least we can notice changes along with what people are talking about and who they are talking to. Imagine that you sit on a chair in a restaurant at lunch time. You probably see people talking about their projects. When you move to a traditional market, Pasar  Johar   for instance, you may see buyers and sellers involved in buying and selling transaction. What’s the he ll will you see then if you go to a quiet place such as Marina Beach of Semarang on Saturday evening? Will you see old people or young couples there? Can you imagine what they are talking about? Everyone is sure that you know the answers. They talk surely about different things — projects, food stuffs or goods, flattery — because they are in different surroundings or situations, and they talk to different people. We are now no longer kids that we may have a finely tuned ability to use appropriate language at different times and for different purposes. We realize, often intuitively, that there is a situation for us to use a different language such as in a romantic seduction, in a football comment, or in a seminar on AIDS. This discrimination has been built up from our accumulated experiences of different situations and the language choices within them. When you notice how the changes occur and the reasons for the changes, and even you can do it yourself when you speak to different people, you do and appreciate functional linguistics. THIS HANDOUT GUIDES YOU FROM AN INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE OF FUNCTIONAL BASIS OF LANGUAGE TO FULLY AWARE APPRECIATION OF FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR.   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   2 Now you can try a simple test of your intuitive knowledge of functional basis of language by answering the questions about the four given expressions following the questions, and then employ your answers to comment on the expressions.    What activity is taking place?    Who is speaking?    Who is being spoken to?    What sort of social distance is there between them?    Is the relationship between them equal or unequal?    Are any items in the expression positively or negatively appraised?    What are the appraisal motifs?    Do we know where the activity is taking place?    Is the expression interactive or not?    Is the expression srcinally spoken or written?    How could we summarize the main tone or thrust of the text?    Does language constitute the whole of the activity or is it helping some other activity along? (1)   “You’re interesting to me. I’d like to get to know you better, and we can see where this goes.”  (2)   Thanks a lot for your site. It helped me with my homework. I am from Australia and I am in 3 rd  grade but right now I am living in France. (3)   SHUT UP!! I am fed up! (4)   Perhaps one of the most interesting words in the English language today is the word fuck. It is a magical English word that begins with the letter f and can describe a situation such as fraud, trouble, aggression, difficulty, inquiry, dissatisfaction, incompetence, pain, pleasure, hate, and love. Look at these examples: I got fuck with that used car a lot; I guess I am really fucked now; Don’t fuck with me buddy; I don’t understand this  fucking question; What’s the fuck with that? I don’t like with the fuck going on here; He’s a fucker  .   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   3 Fuck is derived from a German word FRICHEN which means to strike. In English the word fuck falls in dramatic grammatical categories. As a transitive verb, for instance,  John fucked Chirly  . As an intransitive verb Chirly fucks . Its meaning is not always sexual. It can be used as an adjective,  John’s doing all the fucking work  ; as part of an adverb, Chirly talked too fucking much ; as an adverb enhancing an adjective, Chirly is  fucking beautiful  ; as a noun I don’t need a fuck  . So you can use this flexible word more often in your daily speech. Say it loudly and proudly FUCK YOU. Perhaps you can intuitively answer some or all of the questions but not linguistically. If you think it is significant for you to be able to linguistically answer the questions, which in fact display the relationship between the context of situation (the field, tenor and mode) and the expression (text), you definitely need to learn functional grammar. Figure 1.1: Text in Context   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   4 Texts in contexts A text is a functional language (Halliday and Hasan 1985). It has texture — the way the meaning in the text fit coherently with each other and structure — the obligatory elements appropriate to the purpose and context.   A text always occurs in two contexts, one within the other. The outer context around a text is called CONTEXT OF CULTURE. The inner context within the outer context is called CONTEXT OF SITUATION. This is represented in Figure 1.1.   You can see the context of culture from these two illustrations. When a person addresses an older female with emaké for an English address mommy, you will easily notice that he or she is from a Javanese culture. Again when you hear someone instructing several people using plain imperatives as work in  pairs, search in different places, and report to me every hour, do it, dismiss,  you will easily recognize that the person speaking must be the boss. Within the context of culture, speakers and writers use language in different contexts of situation, which cover the things going on in the world. There are three contexts of situation, namely FIELD, TENOR, and MODE OF THE DISCOURSE. This is represented in Figure 1.2. Figure 1.2: Context of Situation
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