handout fg ch 2 | Clause

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Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd. 1 2. SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR By the end of this unit you will:  know what systemic functional grammar is  know what constituent is  have worked with practices in breaking down a clause into constituents  have worked with practices in breaking down a text into clauses Systemic functional grammar is a way of describing lexical and grammatical choices fr
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   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   1 2. SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR By the end of this unit you will:    know what systemic functional grammar is    know what constituent is    have worked with practices in breaking down a clause into constituents    have worked with practices in breaking down a text into clauses Systemic functional grammar is a way of describing lexical and grammatical choices from the system of wording, known as METALANGUAGE, so that we are always aware of how language is being used to realize experiential, interpersonal and textual meanings. However, what do we mean by grammar? People say that it is a rule of a language that they keep breaking. Some would say that grammar is the way in which the language is organized. Still others say that it refers to language patterns which consist of component parts or CONSTITUENTS. Constituency in writing: A passage of written English consists of sentences, which consist of words, which consist of letters. This relationship displays constituency and can be diagrammed as in Figure 2.1. Constituency in speech: Language evolved first as speaking and listening for many thousands of generation before any of them came to be written down. When then do we find the principle of constituency embodied in the spoken language? Constituency in spoken language can be diagrammed as in figure 2.2.   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   2 PARAGRAPH SENTENCE WORD LETTER   Figure 2.1: Constituency in writing TONE GROUP FOOT SYLLABLE PHONEME Figure 2.2: Constituency in speech   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   3 Traditional versus Functional grammar Everyone learning English as a foreign language must have experienced a formal training in grammar. You may know something about subject, predicate, person, tense, parts of speech, and others. These are all labeled under grammatical terms in traditional grammar. What would you comment on the following sentences based on traditional grammar? 1.   But me no buts. 2.   You left the door open. And it’s freezing inside.  Can you say more than mentioning or describing those grammatical terms? Can you relate the expressions to the extra-linguistic and linguistic levels? Functional grammarians do not reject, discard or replace the terminology of traditional grammar but, to capture what goes on in language, build on and define the notion of traditional grammar in several ways. i.e.: 1.   To recognize that words have function as well as class. 2.   To recognize how word function can tell us much more than any description of words in terms of class, i.e. the language, where it occurs, the culture that surrounds the person and the message. This refinement from word class to word function leads to another refinement of traditional grammar, the RANK SCALE-patterns of language at several different levels. You can read figure 2.3. Figure 2.3: Levels of rank scale   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   4 Clauses and their constituencies In systemic functional grammar a clause is a fundamental/complete meaningful message structure in any language. Its constituent parts can be seen in table 2.2 below. CLAUSE COMPLEX When the national economy is growing fast, many economic analysts will claim that interest rates should rise to prevent a situation of boom and bust. CLAUSES 1.   When the national economy is growing fast, 2.   many economic analysts will claim 3.   that interest rates should rise to prevent a situation of boom and bust. GROUPS OR PHRASES When the national economy is growing fast, many economic analysts will claim that interest rates should rise to prevent a situation of boom and bust. WORDS the national economy growing many economic analysts will MORPHEMES nation -al the grow -ing claim Table 2.2: Example of rank scale break-down Now you learn how we break the following text down on the basis of the levels of rank scale. Text: Subject: Thank you and hello To: jeather@iprimus.com.au From: Zach <ddrf3521@go2net.com> Date: Sat, 2 Aug 2008 05: 08: 11
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