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Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd. 1 3. HOW YOU REPRESENT THE WORLD By the end of this unit you will:  know the metalanguage for describing language experience  have worked with a lot of practices in describing language experience It has been known that language has an experiential function, so it has experiential meanings. We use the experiential function to encode our experience of the world; that is we u
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   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   1 3. HOW YOU REPRESENT THE WORLD By the end of this unit you will:    know the metalanguage for describing language experience    have worked with a lot of practices in describing language experience It has been known that language has an experiential function, so it has experiential meanings. We use the experiential function to encode our experience of the world; that is we use it to convey a picture of reality. Language simultaneously performs three functions (experiential, interpersonal and textual). This chapter, however, discusses only the experiential function. Human experience, which refers to things, events and circumstances, typically occur together in clauses, with the pivotal element of the clause being the expression of event, or process. PROCESS is realized by a verbal group. PARTICIPANTS are realized by nominal groups or prepositional phrases and can interact with process through a variety of participant roles. CIRCUMSTANCES of human experience (the whys, whens, and the wherefores) are realized by adverbial groups, and prepositional phrases. The outer edge is CONJUNCTION GROUPS which indicates the logical relationship in the system. The human experience as represented in the three constituent parts and the conjunction groups can be diagrammed as in figure 3.1. Figure 3.1: Patterns of experience in a clause   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   2 Metalanguage for describing language experience To describe the experiential function of language we need to know the three functional constituents: PARTICIPANT, PROCESS and CIRCUMSTANCE. The Participant constituent can be further described in terms of participant roles such as ACTOR, AGENT, GOAL, CARRIER, and SAYER depending on the process they interact with. The Process divides into three basic process types: MATERIAL, RELATIONAL and PROJECTING. Clause patterns in the experiential function Most English clauses can be described functionally in terms of Participant, Process and Circumstance, with Process being the essential ingredient and patterned as follows: 1.   Participant + Process    He sneezed    The President arrived 2.   Participant + Process + Participant    The water damaged the carpet    The Premier congratulated them 3.   Participant + Process + Circumstance    The judicial system works slowly    The President arrived by train 4.   Participant + Process + Participant + Circumstance    I thanked her warmly    The snake bit her on the ankle 5.   Process    Stop!    Run! 6.   Participant + Process + Projected clause    I forgot that it was her birthday    Bill said that the system had stopped 7.   Participant + Process + Participant + Projected clause    The boss told the staff that the company made a profit   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   3 Processes You know that there are basically three groups of processes: 1.   Doing words. They are divided into (a) MATERIAL PROCESSES as in arrived   and worked   that encode experiences (actions and happenings) in the external material world, and (b) BEHAVIORAL PROCESSES as in sneezed   and sang that encode physiological and psychological behavior and lie somewhere between material, mental or verbal processes. 2.   Thinking, feeling or saying words describe the inner world of cognition, perception, emotion, and desire and has the potential for projecting our inner world as thought or speech so that it can be apprehended by others. They are known as PROJECTING PROCESSES and can be subdivided into (a) MENTAL PROCESSES as in remembered   and overheard   that encode experiences in the inner world of consciousness, and (b) VERBAL PROCESSES as in told and said   that encode the experiences of bringing the inner world outside by speaking. 3.   Being words fall into EXISTENTIAL PROCESSES as in are  and was  that encode the existence of a sole participant, and RELATIONAL PROCESSES as in became, have, belongs, are, was  that encode relationships of being and having between two participants. Relational Processes can be further divided into RELATIONAL ATTRIBUTIVE PROCESSES whose function is to ascribe an attribute, and RELATIONAL IDENTIFYING PROCESSES whose function is to identify. Process types and participant roles 1.   MATERIAL PROCESSES Material processes construe doing. They answer the question What did  X do?   or What happened?   The potential participant roles are ACTOR (the Doer of the process), GOAL (the Thing affected by the process), RANGE (the Thing unaffected by the process), and BENEFICIARY (the Recipient, the one who receives the outcome of the process or Client the one for whom the process is done). Let’s study the following examples:     Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   4 I felt the wood Actor Material Goal Joan arrived Actor Material Theo caught the cricket ball Actor Material Goal The cat was being chased by the dog Goal Material Actor I posted a letter to a friend Actor Material Goal Beneficiary: Recipient The architect built a house for his mother Actor Material Goal Beneficiary: Client Jackson is climbing the fence Actor Material Range 2.   BEHAVIORAL PROCESSES Behavioral processes construe physiological or psychological behavior. The participant is BEHAVER, the conscious being or personified thing. Behavioral process is the doing version of mental and verbal process. It sometimes has a Range-like Participant known as BEHAVIOR. Now study these examples: The woman laughed Behaver Behavioral Jim watched the sunset Behaver Behavioral Range
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