handout fg ch 4 | Clause

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Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd. 1 4. HOW YOU INTERACT WITH LANGUAGE By the end of this unit you will:  know the metalanguage for interacting and communicating with language  have worked with a lot of practices in describing interaction and communication with language Language has an interpersonal function, so it has interpersonal meanings. When people talk together, they don not only talk abou
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   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   1 4 . HOW YOU INTERACT WITH LANGUAGE By the end of this unit you will:    know the metalanguage for interacting and communicating with language      have worked with a lot of practices in describing interaction and communication with language  Language has an interpersonal function, so it has interpersonal meanings. When people talk together, they don not only talk about experience of the world but also interact with language and express interpersonal meanings. Interpersonal meanings cover the type of interaction taking place and the kind of commodity being exchanged, and the way speakers taking a position in their messages. Interacting with language Roles in exchange and the commodity being exchanged are significant factors in an interaction with language. They can display the interpersonal meanings of the semantic level of language which are realized in the wordings of the lexicogrammatical level. The role in exchange and the commodity being exchanged can be diagrammed as in figure 4.1 below. Role in Exchange Commodity exchanged Goods & Services Information Giving Offer (realized as polar interrogative, imperative, declarative, declarative + tag) Would you like this teapot?   You may accept or reject Statement (realized as declarative) He’s giving her the teapot.  You may acknowledge or contradict   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   2 Demanding Command (realized as imperative, polar and wh-interrogative, declarative) Give me that teapot.  You may undertake (comply with) or refuse Question (realized as polar and wh-interrogative) What is he giving her?   You may answer or disclaim Figure 4.1: An exchange of goods and services or Information Metalanguage for describing interaction with language There are several grammatical terms which are used as the metalanguage for describing interaction with language. They are finite, subject, mood, modal finite, polarity, residue, predicator, complement, adjunct, vocative, person, declarative mood, interrogative mood, and imperative mood. Two grammatical features that carry the main burden of interpersonal meanings are the SUBJECT and FINITE. Subject is realized by a nominal group upon which the speaker rests his case in exchanges of information, and the one responsible for insuring that the action is or is not carried out in exchanges of goods and service. Finite, on the other hand, is the focus for the expression of interpersonal meanings and is part of the verbal group which expresses TENSE — a sign of time, MODALITY —a sign of the speaker’s opinion , and POLARITY. Subject and Finite combine to make the MOOD of the clause. PREDICATOR (telling what’s doing, happening or being) is the rest of the verbal group and is the basis of predication or validation of the rest of the clause. ADJUNCTS, such as: 1.   Circumstantial Adjuncts which answer the questions how, when, where, by whom ; 2.   Conjunctive Adjuncts which have textual function:  for instance, anyway, moreover, therefore, meanwhile, nevertheless ;   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   3 3.   Comment Adjuncts or Evaluative Comments which express the speaker’s comment on what he or sh e is saying:  frankly, apparently, hopefully, to my surprise, unfortunately   are circumstance in the experiential meaning of a clause which are added on to the interpersonal meaning. COMPLEMENT, which answer the question what, to whom, did what  , and has the potential to be subject, is nominal group acting to complete the argument set up in the clause. RESIDUE is part of the clause which consists of predicator, complement(s) and adjunct(s). VOCATIVE, direct address in spoken language, and PERSON, the interactants (speaker and addressee) are the extra elements in the interpersonal description. Mood Adjunct is another type of adjunct but falls within Mood system. They are as follows: i.   of polarity and modality    polarity: not, yes, no, so      probability:  probably possibly, certainly, perhaps, maybe      usuality: usually, sometimes, always, never, ever, seldom, rarely       readiness: willingly, readily, gladly, certainly, easily       obligation: definitely, absolutely, possibly, at all cost, by all means ii.   of temporality    time: yet, still, already, once, soon, just       typically: occasionally, generally, regularly, mainly   iii.   of mood    obviousness: of course, surely, obviously, clearly       intensity:  just, simply, merely, only, even, actually, really       degree: quite, almost, nearly, scarcely, hardly, absolutely, totally, utterly, entirely, completely       comment: hopefully, unfortunately, apparently   The following examples describe the interpersonal meanings in different sentence types.   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   4 Unmarked Declarative  Unfortunately we c an’t come to the party. Comment Adjunct Subject Finite - (Modal) Predicator Circ Adjunct Mood Residue The car had four bicycle wheels. Subject Finite + (Past) Predicator Complement Mood Residue By this action she is transformed into a quasi-divine figure. Circ Adjunct Subject Finite + (Present) Predicator Circ Adjunct Res- Mood -idue In the final scene she displays this. Circ Adjunct Subject Finite + (Present) Predicator Complement Res- Mood -idue Jack could eat no fat Subject Finite + (modal) Predicator Complement Mood Residue
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