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Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd. 1 5. HOW YOU ORGANIZE YOUR MESSAGES By the end of this unit you will:  know the metalanguage for organizing your message  have worked with a lot of practices in describing the organization of your message Language has a textual function so it has textual meanings. We use textual function to organize our experiential and interpersonal meanings into a linear and coheren
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   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   1 5. HOW YOU ORGANIZE YOUR MESSAGES By the end of this unit you will:    know the metalanguage for organizing your message      have worked with a lot of practices in describing the organization of your message  Language has a textual function so it has textual meanings. We use textual function to organize our experiential and interpersonal meanings into a linear and coherent whole. To organize a text into a coherent whole we need to keep our readers and listeners well informed about where they are and where they are going. There are grammatical resources to signpost the way through clauses from the beginning to the end of a text. The first signpost tells the readers and listeners what the speaker or writer has in mind as a starting point. Notice that in each clause the speaker has made different choices about how the first position in the clause should be filled. Because we know that all choices are meaningful, we need to ask what has motivated the change, so let us examine each one of the four clauses below: 1.   The boy chased the pretty girl anywhere. 2.   Anywhere the boy chased the pretty girl. 3.   By the boy the pretty girl was chased anywhere. 4.   The pretty girl was chased by boy anywhere. The change in the order changes our perspective about the concerns of the clause. We interpret that clause 1 as a message about the boy, clause 4 as a message about the pretty girl. On the other hand, clause 2 is more likely to be part of a conversation about where various actions took place, and clause 3 is about the agency of the action. What comes first in a clause expresses an important and separate kind of meaning. This is to signal to the audience what the meaning is about. In English the first position in a clause contains textual meanings because it signposts the development of the text. To describe textual meanings we need a simple and distinct metalanguage: we call the first element THEME and the   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   2 rest of the clause RHEME. Halliday (1994: 38) characterizes Theme as what the message is concerned with. It is the point of departure for what the speaker is going to say. In other words, it functions as a starting point or signpost, that is, the frame the speaker has chosen for the message. The theme of a clause can be realized as a nominal group , adverbial group  or prepositional phrase  and nominalization . The duke  has given my aunt that teapot. Once upon a time  there were three bears. Very carefully  she put him back on his feet again. With sobs and tears he sorted out those of the largest size. What the duke gave to my aunt  was that teapot. Returning to our four clauses, we can apply Theme and Rheme categories to each one. Theme Rheme    The boy chased the pretty girl anywhere.    Anywhere the boy chased the pretty girl.    By the boy the pretty girl was chased anywhere.    The pretty girl was chased by boy anywhere. Theme could be divided into: 1.   TOPICAL (EXPERIENTIAL) THEME is the first element of the experiential meanings, be Participant, Process or Circumstance. The man in the moon came down too soon. The man who came to dinner stayed for breakfast. Topical Theme Rheme 2.   TEXTUAL THEME is the text-creating meanings and is any combination of Continuative ( yes, no, well, oh, now  ), Conjunctions ( and, because, who ) and Conjunctive Adjunct (  for instance, in addition, likewise ). But the pig was not. When the prince saw Cinderella Textual Theme Topical Theme Rheme   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   3 3.   INTERPERSONAL THEME is the first element of the clause which indicates an interaction between speakers. This may include the Finite in Interrogative clauses where it precedes the Subject, Vocatives (personal name used to address) and Mood Adjuncts ( surprisingly, in my opinion, fortunately  ). May we have some butter for the royal slice of bread? Jessica, come here Could the team have beaten the grant finalists? Probably they could. Interpersonal Topical Rheme Theme Theme Components of a multiple theme No Metafunction Components of Theme 1 Textual Continuative Structural (conjunction or WH-relative) Conjunctive Adjunct 2 Interpersonal Vocative Modal Adjunct Finite WH-interrogative 3 Experiential Topical (participant, circumstance, process Continuative (signals that a new move is beginning) Discourse signalers: yes, no, well, oh, now Structural Conjunction No Type Examples 1 Conjunction : Co-ordinator and, but, or, so, then   Functional Grammar Made Easy © 2008 by Drs. Liliek Soepriatmadji, M.Pd.   4 Sub-ordinator when, while, before, after, until, because, if, although, unless, since, that, whether, in order to even if, in case, supposing that, assuming that, seeing that, given that, provided that, in spite of the fact that, in the event that, so that 2 Relative : Definite Indefinite which, who, that, whose, when, where, (why, how) whatever, whichever, whoever, whosever, whenever, wherever, however Conjunctive Adjuncts (relate the clause to the preceding text) No Type Meaning Examples 1 Appositive Corrective Dismissive Summative Verifactive i.e., e.g. rather in any case in short actually that is, in order words, for instance or rather, at least, to be precise in any case, anyway, leaving that aside briefly, to sum up, in conclusion actually, in fact, as a matter of fact 2 Additive Adversative Variative and but instead also, moreover, in addition, besides on the other hand, however, conversely instead, alternatively 3 Temporal Comparative Causal Conditional Concessive Respective then likewise so (if…) then  yet as to that meanwhile, before that, later on, next, soon, finally likewise, in the same way therefore, for this reason, as a result, with this in mid in that case, under the circumstances, otherwise nevertheless, despite that in th is respect, as far as that’s concerned  
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