Heavy Duty Pavements | Road Surface | Stress (Mechanics)

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Interpave Heavy Duty Block Paving Manual
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  www.paving.org.uk pavements  THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OFHEAVY DUTY PAVEMENTS FORPORTS AND OTHER INDUSTRIES EDITION 4 heavy duty Uniclass L 534 December 2008  60 Charles Street, Leicester LE1 1FBtel: 0116 253 6161 fax: 0116 251 4568e-mail: info@paving.org.ukwebsite: www.paving.org.ukInterpave is a Product Association of the British Precast Concrete Federation Ltd. © 2007 BPCF Ltd.Every effort has been made to ensure that the statements madeand the opinions expressed in this publication provide a safeand accurate guide; however, no liability or responsibility of anykind (including liability for negligence) can be accepted in thisrespect by the publishers or the author.  THE STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF HEAVYDUTY PAVEMENTS FOR PORTS ANDOTHER INDUSTRIESEDITION 4 by John KnaptonPublished by Interpave FIRST EDITION PUBLISHED BY BRITISH PORTSASSOCIATION, 1984.SECOND EDITION PUBLISHED BY BRITISH PORTSFEDERATION, 1986.THIRD EDITION PUBLISHED BY BRITISH PRECASTCONCRETE FEDERATION, 1996.THIS FOURTH EDITION PUBLISHED BYINTERPAVE, 2007. Downloaded fromhttp://www.paving.org.uk heavy duty pavements edition 4  1. INTRODUCTIONp42. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYp63. SCOPE OF THE MANUALp6 3.1 DESIGN OF CONVENTIONALLY DRAINED TRAFFICKED AREASp73.2 DESIGN OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS FORTRAFFICKED AREASp73.3 DESIGN PRINCIPLESp9 4. ANALYSIS TECHNIQUEp9 4.1 FINITE ELEMENT METHODp94.1 PAVEMENT SURFACE, STRUCTURE AND FOUNDATIONp10 5. CALIBRATION OF THE DESIGN METHODp11 5.1 NEED FOR CALIBRATION (JUSTIFICATION OF METHOD)p115.2 BASIS OF CALIBRATION p115.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THIS MANUAL’S DESIGN CHART p13 6. DETAILS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT MODELp18 6.1 AXI-SYMMETRIC FINITE ELEMENTS p186.2 SIZE OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEL p196.3 DETAILS OF FINITE ELEMENT MODEL p196.4 STRUCTURAL CONTRIBUTION OF CONCRETEBLOCK PAVING SURFACING p19 7. PAVING MATERIALSp21 7.1 STANDARD SURFACING AND BASE MATERIALS p217.2 STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF HYDRAULICALLY BOUND MIXTURES p217.3 STANDARD C 8/10 CEMENT BOUND GRANULAR MIXTUREp217.4 DEFINITIONS OF OTHER MATERIALS COMMONLY USED OR ENCOUNTERED IN HEAVY DUTY PAVEMENTSp227.5 MATERIAL EQUIVALENCE FACTORSp257.6 TABLE OF MATERIAL EQUIVALENCE FACTORSp277.7 STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF PAVEMENT COURSESp307.8 SELECTION OF CONCRETE BLOCK PAVINGp31 8. PAVEMENT LOADINGp32 8.1 SINGLE EQUIVALENT WHEEL LOAD (SEWL)p338.2 LOADS APPLIED BY HIGHWAY VEHICLESp338.3 CRITICAL LOAD FOR HEAVY DUTY PAVEMENTSp348.4 DISTRIBUTION OF CONTAINER WEIGHTSp348.5 CRITICAL CONTAINER WEIGHTSp358.6 TYRESp388.7 DYNAMICSp388.8 LANE CHANNELISATIONp398.9 CONTAINER CORNER CASTING LOADSp408.10 TRAILER DOLLY WHEELSp418.11 WHEEL PROXIMITY FACTORSp418.12 WHEEL LOAD CALCULATIONS FOR HANDLING PLANTp44 8.12.1 FRONT LIFT TRUCKS AND REACH STACKERSp448.12.2 STRADDLE CARRIERSp458.12.3 SIDE LIFT TRUCKSp478.12.4 YARD GANTRY CRANESp478.12.5 TRACTOR AND TRAILER SYSTEMSp498.12.6 MOBILE CRANES (UNLADEN)p50 9. FOUNDATION DESIGNp51 9.1 SUB-BASE AND CAPPING THICKNESSp519.2 NEED TO INVESTIGATE SUBGRADE AT SIGNIFICANT DEPTHp519.3 SUFFICIENCY OF SITE INVESTIGATIONp529.4 ALTERNATIVE SUB-BASE MATERIALSp52 CONTENTS Downloaded fromhttp://www.paving.org.uk 2 heavy duty pavements edition 4  Downloaded fromhttp://www.paving.org.uk 3 heavy duty pavements edition 4 9.5 FOUNDATION DESIGN EXAMPLESp53 9.5.1 FOUNDATION DESIGN EXAMPLE 1. CLASS 2 TO CLASS 3 FOUNDATION p539.5.2 FOUNDATION DESIGN EXAMPLE 2. CLASS 4 IN SITU STABILISED FOUNDATION p54 10. NEW PAVEMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE 1 –STRADDLE CARRIER PAVEMENTSp55 10.1 DATAp5510.2 CALCULATIONSp5610.3 WHEEL PROXIMITYp5610.4 EQUIVALENCING WHEEL LOADS FOR MULTI-AXLE PLANTp5610.5 PAVEMENT SECTION FROM DESIGN CHARTp5710.6 BASE THICKNESS DESIGN WITH ALTERNATIVE DYNAMIC FACTORSp5710.7 DESIGN WITH ZERO DYNAMIC FACTORS (FREE RUNNING)p5810.8 SUMMARY OF STRADDLE CARRIER DESIGN SOLUTIONSp59 11. NEW PAVEMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE 2 –REACH STACKER PAVEMENTSp60 11.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECTp6011.2 LOADS APPLIED BY REACH STACKERSp6011.3 WHEEL PROXIMITYp6011.4 DYNAMICSp6111.5 DESIGN LIFEp6111.6 USING THE DESIGN CHART FOR REACH STACKERp6211.7 DESIGN FOR CONTAINER STORAGEp6211.8 DESIGN FOR PAVEMENT FOUNDATIONp6211.9 PAVEMENT SECTIONSp62 12. NEW PAVEMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE 3 –DISTRIBUTION WAREHOUSE PAVEMENTSp64 12.1 INTRODUCTIONp6412.2 DATAp6412.3 DESIGN OF EXIT ROADp6412.4 DESIGN OF DOCK LEVELLER PAVEMENTp6512.5 DESIGN OF HARDSTANDINGp6512.6 DESIGN SECTIONSp65 13. OVERLAY DESIGNp67 13.1 INTRODUCTIONp6713.2 IN SITU PAVEMENT QUALITY CONCRETEp6813.3 CONVENTIONAL FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTSp6913.4 SUMMARY OF OVERLAY PROCEDURESp6913.5 OVERLAY DESIGN TECHNIQUEp70 13.5.1 FALLING WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETERp7013.5.2 MODIFIED COMPONENT ANALYSIS METHODp70 13.6 PAVEMENT TRANSFORMATION PROCEDUREp7113.7 PAVEMENT EVALUATION – EXAMPLE 1p7213.8 PAVEMENT EVALUATION – EXAMPLE 2p7413.9 PAVEMENT EVALUATION – EXAMPLE 3p7613.10 DESIGN OF OVERLAYp7713.11 DESIGN PROCEDUREp7713.12 OVERLAY DESIGN – EXAMPLE 4p7713.13 OVERLAY DESIGN – EXAMPLE 5p8013.14 OVERLAY DESIGN – EXAMPLE 6p82 14. DESIGN CHARTSp8315. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHYp84 A) BRITISH AND EUROPEAN STANDARDSp85B) PREVIOUS EDITIONS OF THIS PUBLICATIONp86C) OTHER PUBLICATIONSp87
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