History Midterm Study Guide

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Learn about the history of the United States between 1850-1915 with this basic study guide!
  Monopolies:    the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or serviceTrusts: Several companies turn their stock over to a dominant company in exchange for trustcertificates which allow them to share in the new company's profits but could not control itsdecisions.Pools: greement between companies to divide up their market and to all sell their products at anagreed upon price so that each of them could make a profit.!nterstate ommerce ct#! $:    regulatory agency in the %nited States created by the !nterstate ommerce ct of &(. The agency's original purpose was to regulate railroads #and later trucking$ to ensure fair rates) to eliminate rate discrimination) and to regulate other aspectsof   common carriers) including interstate bus lines and telephone companies. Sharecropping:   a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. rop *ien:    a credit system that became widely used by cotton farmers in the %nited States in the South from the &+,s to the &-,s. Sharecroppers and tenant farmers who did not own the land they worked obtained supplies and food on credit from local merchants.Tycoon:    a wealthy) powerful person in business or industry./obber 0aron: a person who has become rich through ruthless and unscrupulous business  practices #srcinally with reference to prominent %S businessmen in the late &-th century$Philanthropy:   the desire to promote the welfare of others) expressed especially by the generous donation of money to good causes. ndrew arnegie:   ndrew arnegie was a Scottish merican industrialist who led the expansionof the merican steel industry in the late &-th century) and is often identified as one of the richest people and mericans ever. 1ohn 2. /ockefeller: 1ohn 2avison /ockefeller Sr. was an merican oil industry business magnate and philanthropist. 3e is widely considered the wealthiest merican of all time) and the richest person in modern history.Standard 4il: Standard 4il o. !nc. was an merican oil producing) transporting) refining) and marketing company. 5stablished in &(, by 1ohn 2. /ockefeller as a corporation in 4hio) it was the largest oil refiner in the world of its time.6ertical7 3ori8ontal !ntegration :   #3$ The process of a company increasing production of goods or services at the same part of the supply chain.  company may do this via internal expansion) ac9uisition or merger.#6$ ompanies that ac9uire a company that operates either before or after the ac9uiring companyin the production process.  Sherman ntiTrust ct : pproved 1uly ;) &-,) The Sherman ntiTrust ct was the first <ederal act that outlawed monopolistic business practices. The Sherman ntitrust ct of &-, was the first measure passed by the %.S. ongress to prohibit trusts. ompromise of &((: The ompromise of &(( gave /utherford 0. 3ayes the presidency in exchange for the end of /econstruction in the South.Pendleton ct:   &) which established that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.1ames . =arfield: 1ames bram =arfield was the ;,th President of the %nited States) serving from March >) &&) until his assassination later that year. hester . rthur: hester lan rthur was an merican attorney and politician who served as the ;&st President of the %nited States? he succeeded 1ames . =arfield upon the latter's assassination.Samuel =ompers:   merican labor union leader and a key figure in merican labor history. =ompers founded the merican <ederation of *abor #<*$) and served as the organi8ation's president from &+ to &-> and from &-@ until his death in &-;>.Anights of *abor:   The first important national labour organi8ation in the %nited States) founded in &+-. Bamed the Boble 4rder of the Anights of *abor by its first leader) %riah Smith Stephens) it srcinated as a secret organi8ation meant to protect its members from employer retaliations./econstruction: The complete history of the entire country from &+@ to &(( following the merican ivil Car  #&+& to &+@$? the second sense focuses on the attempted transformation of the Southern %nited States from &+ to &(() as directed by ongress) with the reconstruction of state and society.*aisse8faire: abstention by governments from interfering in the workings of the free market.0ooker T. Cashington: 5ducator) author) orator) and advisor to presidents of the %nited States. 0etween &-, and &-&@) Cashington was the dominant leader in the fricanmerican community. Cashington was from the last generation of black merican leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants. C.5.0. 2u 0ois:   Sociologist) historian) civil rights activist) Panfricanist) author) and editor. 2u 0ois was one of the cofounders of the  Bational ssociation for the dvancement of olored People #B P$ in &-,-. !nsisted on full civil rights and increased political  representation) which he believed would be brought about by the fricanmerican intellectual elite.0essemer Process:  steelmaking process) now largely superseded) in which carbon) silicon) and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort.*ittle 0ig 3orn:   nown to the *akota and other Plains !ndians as the 0attle of the =reasy =rass D&E and commonly referred to as uster's *ast Stand) was an armed engagement between combined forces of the *akota)  Borthern heyenne) and rapaho tribes and the (th avalry /egiment of the %nited States rmy. The battle) which occurred 1une ;@F;+) &(+) near the *ittle 0ighorn /iver  in eastern Montana Territory) was the most prominent action of the =reat Sioux Car of &(+.Transcontinental /ailroad: a &)-&;mile #),(( km$ continuous railroad line constructed between&+ and &+- that connected the existing eastern %.S. rail network at 4maha) Bebraska7 ouncil 0luffs) !owa with the Pacific coast at the 4akland *ong Charf     on San <rancisco 0ay. D&E  The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive %S land grants. D;E  ssimilation: The process of taking in and fully understanding information or ideas.2awes ct: dopted by ongress in &() authori8ed the President of the %nited States to survey merican !ndian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual !ndians. arlisle !ndian School: The %nited States !ndian !ndustrial School in arlisle) Pennsylvania) generally known as arlisle !ndian !ndustrial School) was the flagship !ndian boarding school in the %nited States from &(- through &-&.=ospel of Cealth:   n article written by ndrew arnegie in 1une of &- that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of selfmade rich1im row: 1im row laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern %nited States. 5nacted after the /econstruction period) these laws continued in force until &-+@. losed Shop:    place of work where membership in a union is a condition for being hired and for continued employment.Gellow dog ontracts:    contract between a worker and an employer in which the worker agrees not to remain in or Hoin a union.=reat /ailroad Strike #&(($:   0egan on 1uly &> in Martinsburg) Cest 6irginia) %nited States after the 0altimore I 4hio /ailroad #0I4$ cut wages for the third time in a year.3aymarket S9uare /iot:   4n May >) &+) a labor protest rally near hicago's3aymarket S9uare turned into a riot after someone threw a bomb at police.  3omestead Strike: n industrial lockout and strike which began on 1une ,) &-;) culminating ina battle between strikers and private security agents on 1uly +) &-;. Pullman Strike:  nationwide railroad strike in the %nited States on May &&) &-> and a turning  point for %S labor law. !t pitted the merican /ailway %nion #/%$ against the Pullman ompany) the main railroads) and the federal government of the %nited States under President =rover leveland.merican /ailway %nion:   <ounded in 1une &- by labor organi8er 5ugene 2ebs #&@@F&-;+$) the merican /ailway %nion #/%$ was an industrial union for all railroad workers5ugene 2ebs:   5ugene 6ictor J=eneJ 2ebs was an merican union leader) one of the founding members of the !ndustrial Corkers of the Corld) and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of merica for President of the %nited States.=raft:  form of political corruption) being the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for  personal gain./edeemers7Bew South: The /edeemers were a political coalition in the South during the /econstruction era) who sought to overthrow the /adical /epublican coalition of   <reedmen) carpetbaggers and Scalawags. They were the southern wing of the 0ourbon 2emocrats) the conservative) probusiness wing of the 2emocratic hinese 5xclusion ct #&;$:   Passed by ongress and signed by President hester . rthur. This act provided an absolute &,year moratorium on hinese labor immigration.5xodusters: frican mericans who migrated from states along the Mississippi /iver to Aansas in the late nineteenth century) as part of the 5xoduster Movement or 5xodus of &(-. !t was the first general migration of blacks following the ivil Car.=rangers: T   he main goal of the =range was to regulate rising fare prices of railroad and grain elevator companies after the merican ivil Car . The laws) which upset maHor railroad companies) were a topic of much debate at the time and ended up leading to several important court cases) such as  Munn v. Illinois  and Wabash v. Illinois <armerKs lliance: The Bational <armers' lliance and !ndustrial %nion among the white farmersof the South) the Bational <armers' lliance among the white and black farmers of the Midwest and 3igh Plains) where the =ranger movement had been strong) and the olored <armers' Bational lliance and ooperative %nion) consisting of the frican merican farmers of the South.4ne of the goals of the organi8ation was to end the adverse effects of the croplien system on farmers in the period following the merican ivil Car .
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