HYBRID SYSTEM ENERGY M ANAGEMENT BASED ON CONTROLLER FOR POWER GENERATION | Distributed Generation

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   ISSN (Online) NO: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH REVIEWIN ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT (IJRREM) HYBRID SYSTEM ENERGY MANAGEMENT BASED ON CONTROLLER FOR POWER GENERATIONS . BALU* PG Scholar, Department of EEE,Adhiyamaan College of Engineering,Hosur - 6! #$, %amilnadu, &ndia. sbl! #$%&'il 'B PERUMAL M E  (P+D)** Associate Professor    Department of EEE,Adhiyamaan College of Engineering,Hosur - 6! #$, %amilnadu, &ndia. 'alan(perumal)yahoo.com Abs,-, %he paper presents a microcontroller-'ased po*er management system +PSdesigned for the online operation of an eperimental lo* /oltage micro grid e0uipped *ith a 'attery storage system and three po*er supplies. A 1ilo*att +12-class proton echangemem'rane +PE fuel cell +3C, *ind mills +2 po*er and a photo/oltaic +P4 moduleemulator, these connected to a lo* /oltage ac node. %he connections of the energy sources tothe common ac 'us ma1e use of po*er in/erters *ith specific functionalities. %he ac nodefeeds electric acti/e and reacti/e load emulators a'le to reproduce programma'le profiles.%he automatic PS pro/ides the micro grid monitoring and the 3C po*er scheduling in 'othgrid-connected and islanded operating conditions. %he paper descri'es the structure andfunctionalities of the PS as *ell as a specific eperimental in/estigation aimed at assessingthe dynamic performance of the micro grid in islanded conditions.  Key words  —  5attery, digital microcontroller, electrical micro grids, 3uel cell +3C, photo/oltaic +P4 emulator, po*er management system +PS. I INTRODUCTION Distri'uted generation +DG may result in enhanced continuity of ser/ice and in increasedcustomer participation to the electricity mar1et. %hese opportunities are certainly supported 'y allo*ing the operation of a small portion of distri'ution net*or1s +'oth on medium andlo* /oltage le/els in islanded conditions. %he literature on the su'ect defines micro grids assmall-scale po*er systems e0uipped *ith em'edded generators and suita'le control systemsa'le to supply local electrical and thermal demands in islanded operation. &n this definition,micro grids are also designed to connect seamlessly to the pu'lic distri'ution net*or1 and,after that, disconnect *hen appropriate. International Journal of Research Review in Engineering and Management (IJRREM),Volume -1, Issue -2, e!-2 1# $age %o& '-1 $age $age '   ISSN (Online) NO: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH REVIEWIN ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT (IJRREM) &n household applications, the a'o/e-mentioned capa'ility to operate in islandedmode is permitted 'y the presence of energy storage de/ices and 'y the implementation of automatic scheduling systems that ma1e use of communication and aggregation featuresallo*ing the operation and control of micro grids as single entities. 2ithin this contet, thereis a general interest for the utili7ation of 1ilo*att +12-class fuel cells +3Cs in residentialapplications. &ndeed, compared *ith other con/entional small generators, 3Cs, and in particular the proton echange mem'rane +PE ones, promise higher co-generati/e performance, clean and silent operation, and cost-effecti/e supply of po*er. 8ecently, Erdincand 97unoglu pro/ided a re/ie* of different architectures of systems po*ered 'y PE 3Cs,also in com'ined use *ith other po*er supply and energy storage units, in order to 'uild so-called hy'rid systems. 4arious energy management approaches ha/e 'een proposed in theliterature in order to handle the characteristics of different po*er generators and storagesystems.2ith reference to integrated PE 3C and 'attery systems for electric /ehicleapplications, %hounthong et al. P  ropose a cascade control of 3C-current, 'attery-current, and 'attery state-of-charge *ith a limitation function of the dc-lin1 /oltage. Concerningresidential applications, hy'rid energy storage systems composed 'y regenerati/e 3Csintegrated *ith 'atteries, or ultra-capacitors, ha/e 'een compared in order to assess thecriteria for the eploitation of the different energy and po*er density /alues of thecomponents. II MICROCONTROLLER.BASEDPMSFOR  STANDALONE MICROGRIDS WITH HYBRID POWER SUPPLY Additional research efforts appear to 'e needed in order to de/elop automatic systemssuita'le for residential applications a'le to ta1e into account the specific technicalcharacteristics, and constraints, of the a'o/e-mentioned sources, namely, integration of different electrical and thermal generation systems, reduced-si7e storage resources, andcontinuity of supply. 3or this purpose, an eperimental micro grid has 'een de/eloped at theauthors: la'oratory ; !<, ; 6<. %he micro grid includes a PE 3C a'le to pro/ide =.!-12electrical and =.>-12 thermal outputs +fed 'y a gaseous hydrogen storage su'system, a #.6-12 photo/oltaic +P4 emulator, and a =.?-12@ ##-Ah lead-acid 'attery storage system. Allthese de/ices are connected to a common ?#-4 ac 'us through in/erters *ith specificcharacteristics. the in/erter of the PE 3C allo*s setting its po*er production ta1ing intoaccount the 3C limitations and re0uirements. ne of the P4 emulators trac1s its maimum po*er operating point, *hile the =.?-12 'idirectional con/erter of the storage systemimplements a /oltage-fre0uency control of the ac 'us *hen the micro grid is disconnected.3rom the eternal net*or1. %he ac 'us feeds electric acti/e and reacti/e loads, *hichreproduce programma'le profiles through separate on-load tap-changer transformers. A International Journal of Research Review in Engineering and Management (IJRREM),Volume -1, Issue -2, e!-2 1# $age %o& '-1 $age $age    ISSN (Online) NO: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH REVIEWIN ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT (IJRREM)  po*er management system +PS has 'een de/eloped and implemented into an em'eddedmicrocontroller for the automatic operation of the eperimental micro grid in standaloneconditions. %he PS has 'een concei/ed to estimate and control the 'attery state-of-charge+SC as this 0uantity represents one of the most critical operation elements for the microgrid continuity of supply in islanded operating conditions. %he paper aims at descri'ing thea'o/e-mentioned PS *ith particular focus on its implementation into a dedicated real-time.icrocontroller e0uipped *ith a field-programma'le gate array +3PGA. oreo/er, it presents the results of the eperimental in/estigation aimed at assessing the dynamiccharacteristics of the standalone micro grid under /arious initial SC /alues, electric load profiles, and load reection maneu/er. %he structure of the paper is the follo*ingB Section && pro/ides some details on the characteristics of the PE 3C system. Section &&& descri'es thePS functionalities de/eloped to control the 3C output *ith reference to standaloneoperating conditions of the micro grid. Section &4 presents the eperimental results o'tainedduring the PS actions for different load profiles. Section 4 presents the results of the PSand micro grid transient response follo*ing a sudden and complete disconnection of theelectric load +load reection. Section 4& concludes the paper *ith final remar1s. Fi& # A-+i,e,!-e / ,+e e01e-i'en,l 'i- &-i2 International Journal of Research Review in Engineering and Management (IJRREM),Volume -1, Issue -2, e!-2 1# $age %o& '-1 $age $age 1    ISSN (Online) NO: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH REVIEWIN ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT (IJRREM) III BATTERY STATE.OF.CHARGE ESTIMATION &n general, the SC of a 'attery is defined as the difference 'et*een the initial 'atterycapacity and the pro/ided charge, in per-unit of the charge that the 'attery *ill nominally pro/ide *ith reference to constant discharge rate. Se/eral models are proposed in theliterature *hich are 'ased on the follo*ing fi/e 'asic criteriaB+ieasurement of electrolyte specific gra/ity.+ii5attery current time-integration.+iii5attery impedanceresistance estimation.+i/easurement of the 'attery open circuit /oltage.+/odels that ta1e into account the electrolyte temperature, discharge, rate and other 'attery parameters.Additionally, an accurate estimation of the SC needs to ta1e into account the 'atteryen/ironmental conditions, *ith particular reference to its temperature, as *ell as the 'attery 'eha/ior at different discharge rates and its life cycle. International Journal of Research Review in Engineering and Management (IJRREM),Volume -1, Issue -2, e!-2 1# $age %o& '-1 $age $age 11
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