Identifying Gender Inequalities And Possibilities For Change In Shrimp Value Chains In Indonesia And Vietnam

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Gender Transformative and Responsible Agribusiness Investments in South East Asia (GRAISEA) is a regional programme which is funded by the Government of Sweden. Based on the recognition that financial viability and gender equitable and sustainable supply chains are not mutually exclusive, GRAISEA promotes win-win-win propositions: wins for communities, small-scale producers and larger businesses. Since the inception of GRAISEA at the beginning of 2015, pilots in shrimp aquaculture were launched in Indonesia and Vietnam. One element of these projects is to connect with ongoing efforts to develop more sustainable methods in shrimp aquaculture. Oxfam has advocated that the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC), one of the certification initiatives and aquaculture improvement programmes, includes social aspects as standard.
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  GRAISEA DISCUSSION PAPERS OCTOBER 2016 www.oxfam.org.uk/graisea IDENTIFYING GENDER INEQUALITIES AND POSSIBILITIES FOR CHANGE IN SHRIMP VALUE CHAINS IN INDONESIA AND VIETNAM Nguyen Van Bap (husband) and Trinh Thi Phuong (wife) at their shrimp farm, in Vietnam. Credit: Oxfam Vietnam Disclaimer The views and opinions expressed in this paper do not necessarily reflect those of Sida. Sida are not responsible for any errors or omissions in the translation of this paper from the srcinal version to other languages. The designation of geographical entities in this paper, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Sida concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.  2 Identifying gender inequalities and possibilities for change in shrimp value chains in Indonesia and Vietnam OXFAM Oxfam is an international confederation of 17 organizations networked together in 92 countries, as part of a global movement for change, to build a future free from the injustice of poverty. GRAISEA Gender Transformative and Responsible Agribusiness Investments in South East Asia (GRAISEA) is a regional programme which is funded by the Government of Sweden. Based on the recognition that financial viability and gender equitable and sustainable supply chains are not mutually exclusive, GRAISEA promotes win-win-win propositions: wins for communities, small-scale producers and larger businesses. © Oxfam, October 2016 This document was written by Henk Peters, Thies Reemer, Le Thi Sam, Lap Din Xuan, Do Thuy Ha, Than Thi Hien, Mohammad Budi Santosa, and Heny Soelistyowati 1  and submitted to Engendering Security in Fisheries and Aquaculture, 6th Global Symposium on Gender in  Aquaculture & Fisheries (GAF6), Special Symposium at the 11th Asian Fisheries and  Aquaculture Forum, Bangkok, Thailand: 3-7 August 2016. For more information, or to comment on this publication, please email Henk Peters, henk.peters@oxfamnovib.nl. This publication is copyright but the text may be used free of charge for the purposes of advocacy, campaigning, education, and research, provided that the source is acknowledged in full. The copyright holder requests that all such use be registered with them for impact assessment purposes. For copying in any other circumstances, or for re-use in other publications, or for translation or adaptation, permission must be secured and a fee may be charged. Published by GRAISEA Programme, Oxfam in October 2016 www.oxfam.org.uk/graisea  Identifying gender inequalities and possibilities for change in shrimp value chains in Indonesia and Vietnam 3 1 BACKGROUND  As part of the Gender Transformative and Responsible Agribusiness Investments in South East  Asia (GRAISEA) programme, Oxfam and partners - International Collaborating Centre for  Aquaculture and Fisheries Sustainability (ICAFIS) Vietnam, Centre for Marinelife Conservation and Community Development (MCD) Vietnam, and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Indonesia- work on:   Pilots to include the transformation of gender relations and norms in smallholder led sustainable value chain development activities. The value chains chosen are palm oil and shrimp aquaculture. In shrimp aquaculture the pilots involve communities and smallholder farmers, with women and men in producer groups and as workers, and with private sector partners in two countries: Indonesia and Vietnam   Improving smallholder based value chain models, principles and guidelines - using the lessons from the pilots  –  within multi stakeholder forums like the South East Asian Shrimp Aquaculture Improvement Protocol (SEASAIP) and the global Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC)   Advocacy towards ASEAN and its Member States using the lessons from the pilots for promoting corporate social responsibility and responsible and inclusive private sector regulatory frameworks with the ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry (AMAF) as well as the ASEAN initiatives around aquaculture and fisheries such as South East  Asian Fisheries Development Centre (SEAFDEC) Since the inception of GRAISEA at the beginning of 2015, two pilots in shrimp aquaculture started respectively in Indonesia and Vietnam. In the pilots, Oxfam connects to the ongoing efforts to work on more sustainable shrimp aquaculture. Worldwide there are multiple certification initiatives and aquaculture improvement programmes. One of them is the  Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC). In the ASC, Oxfam has been advocating to include social aspects as part of its standard. The ASC shrimp standard, for example includes criteria around fair contract farming, has a comprehensive set of decent labour rights criteria, and request companies to conduct due diligence on effects and impacts for the surrounding communities (ASC, 2014). It has recently started a public consultation on ASC group certification guidelines 2 . The so-called participatory Social Impact Assessment (p-SIA) is a requirement, next to many others, before ASC certification can be achieved. It is often connected to the Biodiversity Environmental Impact Assessment (BEIA). See Box 1 and Annexes I and II of the ASC shrimp standard. (http://www.asc-aqua.org/upload/ASCShrimpStandard_v1.0.pdf)    BOX 1 PARTICIPATORY SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (P-SIA) The p-SIA is included as a key tool in the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) guidelines for a responsible and sustainable shrimp standard. It especially relates to ASC standard principle 3: develop and operate farms with consideration for surrounding communities. This principle seeks to minimize injustice or unrest in affected communities that may result from shrimp farming activities. Using p-SIA especially assists in assessing three ASC criteria: 3.1: All impacts on surrounding communities, ecosystem users and land owners are accounted for and are, or will be, negotiated in an open and accountable manner 3.2: Complaints by affected stakeholders are being resolved  4 Identifying gender inequalities and possibilities for change in shrimp value chains in Indonesia and Vietnam 3.3: Contract farming arrangements (if practiced) are fair and transparent to the contract farmer  ASC defines the Participatory Social Impact Assessment (p-SIA) as: an assessment of positive and negative consequences and risks of a planned or ongoing farm or farm development undertaken in such a manner that all stakeholder groups have input in process, results, and outcome of such an assessment, and that steps taken and information gathered is openly accessible to all. The p ‐ SIA methodology has seven steps: 1. Stakeholder Analysis 2. Description of farm and effects 3. Initial listing of probable social impacts: these can be economic aspects, natural resource access and use, human assets, access to physical infrastructure, social and cultural aspects (incl. gender equity), and governance aspects 4. Deeper research on important impacts 5. Propose adaptations 6. Agree on impacts and measures to address them 7. Summarize conclusions and agreements The assessment is conducted by a team of experts which will visit the location and have interviews, focus group meetings, participatory rural appraisal techniques like resources mapping, transect walk, etc. with stakeholders involved. In the pilots, Oxfam and partners work with the p-SIA as a tool to identify social issues in shrimp aquaculture. In this it also wants to assure that gender relations are well addressed. The ASC shrimp standard does mention gender in its principles but mainly in its Principle 4: operate farms with responsible practices . In principle 4, some of the included criteria are: assuring equal wages and non-discrimination (gender, minority groups) in the work environment; assuring work environment health and safety, assuring non harassment, and so on. In principle 3, gender is only referred in one line (see Box 1 above) in the guidelines for the p-SIA. In the past year as part of GRAISEA Oxfam and partners piloted the application of an “engendered” p -SIA using two different gender analysis and action planning approaches. These were carried out in two different locations: Tarakan, North Kalimantan in Indonesia and in the Mekong delta in Vietnam.
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