Leg Philo Exam | Law Reference | Morality

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  1)A.In Hans Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law, Normativity is consiere !ction  That which relates heavily on ieals an on what man thin#s is $oo,normal, an the correct way of oin$ actions %ase heavily on whatsociety eems !t. It is !ction %ecause it is $roune on a$e %eliefs ano not totally a$ree with the &resent times an the &resent &ers&ective of a moern man. 'ou&le this with (ean oscoe Poun’s notion that law is%ase on *ocial +n$ineerin$ That there is a ierence %etween law in%oo#s an law in action that one is %oune on inter&retation an theother on realism. Accorin$ to Poun, there are social rules or conventionswhich etermine certain facts or events that &rovie for the moi!cation,annulment, or even revision of le$al stanars. That is, what a &ersonreas in %oo#s shoul not %e ta#en literally an inter&retation relatin$ to&resent times is imminent. -urthermore, the acts of man shoul %e ta#enfrom a more moern &ers&ective an inter&rete to a law which irectlyrelates to such acts. In the %er$efell vs. Ho$es case, the /nite *tates*u&reme 'ourt e0&oune on the fact that we may not see the truee0tent of inustice in our own times %ut it will %e %oun to furtherinter&retation an clari!cation in the future. 2hat is &rohi%ite anshunne in the &ast may now %e freely acce&te or &ractice an even %eintrouce to moern norms.As such, Normativity of Law is the nature of a Law which ur$e men too what they ou$ht to o is ri$ht %ut at the same time is %oune %yLaws acce&te in the &resent time. 3ohn -innis’ ta#e on Natural Lawrelates to this as Laws e0ten morality an norms to the realm of Le$ality. That there is somethin$ to %e sai a%out human $oo when tal#in$ a%outnorms where Laws are %ase. Normativity may %e aa&te from history%ut history alone cannot ma#e Laws relevant thus there e0ists the %asisof morality. 4elievin$ that Laws are normative, &eo&le ten to thin# asnaturalists with the %elief that Laws are irectly relate to morality anfollowin$ the Law means followin$ the moral stanars set %y natural law.Peo&le ten to %ecome 5natural lawyers6 where they %elieve that any Lawcannot %ecome le$ally vali unless it &asses a certain threshol of morality while also maintainin$ that morality an merits on sociallyacce&te norms forms a &art of a test where a Law shoul %e consiereas vali or not.4. In the case of Im%on$ vs. choa the *u&reme 'ourt ecie that thee&rouctive Health Law %e im&lemente in full unerminin$ the a$e ol$enerally acce&te norm in the Phili&&ines of reli$ious ori$in that arti!cial%irth control is a$ainst the will of 7o. 2ith the &assin$ of the es&onsi%leParenthoo an e&rouctive Health Act %ac# in 8918, a Law has thus%een e0tenin$ from its &ast normativity with the *u&reme 'ourtac#nowle$in$ the %uren of mothers who cannot anymore $ivesustenance to their chilren or to the other &ro%lems that may %e cure%y &ro&er family &lannin$ an arti!cial %irth control. Inee,over&o&ulation an &overty has o&ene our oors to further acce&t normsthat are alien to us %efore.  In the case of +straa vs. +scritor, the *u&reme court $ave istinctionto &u%lic an secular morality an reli$ious morality. The *u&reme 'ourtstate that it only has urisiction over &u%lic an secular morality an ayinterference to reli$ious morality may unermine the -ree +0ercise'lause. This fact alone su$$ests that the 'ourt is willin$ to unermine$enerally acce&te norms %y not usin$ reli$ious im&ortance %ut, instea,realistically e0&ouns on some freeoms that may %e consiere as lon$as it oes not &romote &u%lic inecency i$norin$, however, that the&ractice may %e inecent to the &ers&ective of 'atholics. The *u&reme'ourt remane the case to %e further e0amine if the reli$ious sinceritytherein is $enuine as such a factor is consiere im&ortant an not thefact that it may %e oensive to some other reli$ion.In the case of %er$efell vs. Ho$es, the /nite *tates *u&reme 'ourtrule in favor of same:se0 marria$e $ivin$ a ivisive o&inion amon$ theinternational community. 2hile others critici;e the u$ement asimmoral, others saw the same as a revolution from the &ast norm. In thePhili&&ines, the rece&tion of the $eneral &u%lic is overwhelmin$ly &ositivean may o&en the country to a%olish the norm of marria$e e0clusivity tothat of only a man or a woman. The &ositive rece&tion alone is aninication of the reainess of -ili&inos alone to ao&t the newlyesta%lishe law of the /nite *tates.8) The current aministration’s ta#e on su&&ressin$ further criminality inthe country is ivisive at %est. (ierent o&inions emer$e if Presientori$o (uterte’s ways are inee lawful or much less constitutional.'learly, there is no e&rivation of life from the &ers&ective of law as all&rotocols are followe in the way these ru$ &ushers or other criminalsare %ein$ ta#en own. 2hat is im&ortant here is the reco$nition of 3u$eliver 2enell Holmes’ conce&t of a 5%a man6. That followin$ the lawoes not ma#e one $oo. A 5%a man6 may e0&loit the law to achieve hisen notwithstanin$ the inustice that it may o unto others. The 5%aman6 will o no $oo even if he follows the Law as his thin#in$ is elve inhow to avoi the harsh conse<uences of the Law whilst still oin$ unlawfulacts. ur Presient is a Lawyer an it is not unusual for Lawyer to ao&tthe <ualities of a 5%a man6 to salva$e his client from the &rosecution. Assuch, as a Lawyer, (uterte #nows of the Law’s a%horrence to +0trauicialKillin$s. There is an o&inion that these #illin$s are %ein$ one yet it is notso. The harsh su&&ression of these criminals s&rea aroun the countryare one usin$ &ro&er &rotocols. Never min the fact that it may %esimulate as any #in of alle$ation woul %e hearsay until &roven %yevience. 2hich is why there is e0&loitation of the Law %ein$ one.Accorin$ to -innis, the increasin$ inierence %etween Law an =oralshave le the way to easy mani&ulation of the Law in favor of oin$immoral acts such as a%ortion an euthanasia. Laws may cause harm %utthis oes not mean that the &erson who utili;e the same will %e&unishe. As lon$ as a &erson may follow an utili;e these Laws as a 5%aman6 he may use it to $ain his en. ur Presient has a $oo cause to %e  a 5%a man6 an he is utili;in$ !re to !$ht !re. -or him this is the moste>cient way to ri this country’s everlon$ &ro%lem on criminalityes&ecially the multi:%illion earnin$ %usiness that is ille$al ru$ trae.?) In the case of +straa vs. +scritor the *u&reme 'ourt state theim&ortance of eli$ious -reeom as es&ouse %y the ri$hts enumerate inArticle ? of the 1@B 'onstitution a&tly name The 4ill of i$hts. ne of the ri$hts is the -reeom of eli$ion which is enumerate into two sets of %eliefs -reeom to %elieve which is an a%solute ri$ht an -reeom to acton one’s %elief which is a limite ri$ht. This fact alone $ives &eo&le#nowle$e that the Law reco$ni;es merely %elief that is on the min aninterferes only when such %elief is acte u&on an enan$er society. A&erson may %elieve in *atanism %ut he cannot &ractice human sacri!ceuner the scrutiny of our laws. As a 'atholic, my o&inion relates to howthe Law treats of the various reli$ion in the country. I see reli$ion as someform of thou$ht insti$atin$ various &eo&le to o what they thin# is ri$ht.However, this thou$ht an insti$ation is limite e&enin$ on how my will&ower to act on my %elief can ta#e. Carious outsie factors may stillinDuence me to o the wron$ thin$. 7oin$ %ac# to the issue of %eliefs, I oa$ree with the fact that reli$ion still has a $reat inDuence on the acts of man. +s&ecially in &romotin$ $oo will an &roviin$ %ene!t for the socialorer. 2ithout reli$ion, there woul nothin$ to su&&ress animalisticesires. 2ith reli$ion %e$ets stron$er conscience an a $reater &ush to othe ri$ht thin$ %ecause we %elieve that %y oin$ the ri$ht thin$ we will%ene!t from the same as we %elieve that $oo thin$s come to a $oo*amaritan. Hence, I %elieve that reli$ion ais in inDuencin$ us to ohuman conuct that will %ene!t to society %ut only to an e0tent. 2e canstill %e inDuence %y several factors from several circumstances. 2ecannot %e rule %y reli$ion alone that is why there is our constitute Lawthat se&arates itself from morality an natural law. This Law #ee&s us inchec# no matter how much reli$ion has an inDuence insie all of us.
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