Livelihoods in Ethiopia: Impact evaluation of linking smallholder coffee producers to sustainable markets | Coffee

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This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, selected for review under the livelihoods thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in December 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the linking smallholder coffee producers to sustainable markets project. The project’s overall objective was to contribute to improved coffee production and sales by linking coffee farmers to primary coffee cooperatives and unions. The project was implemented in three districts in Oromiyaa regional state: Limmu Kossa, Limmu Seka and Chora Botter. Oxfam implemented the project in conjunction with Limmu Inara Multipurpose Cooperative Farmers Union. The Union purchased coffee from the farmers via primary coffee cooperatives, supplied coffee seeds, slashers and wire mesh to the farmers, and supported them in coffee seedling production. They also spearheaded the Functional Adult Literacy scheme, providing capacity building particularly in the use of modern agricultural practices, with a view to improving the quantity and quality of coffee produced. Farm Organic International promoted marketing of the coffee internationally on behalf of the union, and Oromiyaa cooperative bank provided credit facilities through the cooperative societies. For more information, the data for this effectiveness review is available through the UK Data Service. Read more about the Oxfam Effectiveness Reviews. 
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  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES ‘enhancing effectiveness through evidence-based learning’  The project’s overall objective was to contribute to improved coffee production and sales by linking coffee farmers to Primary Coffee Cooperatives and Unions. The project was implemented in three districts in Oromiyaa regional state: Limmu Kossa, Limmu Seka and Chora Botter, by Oxfam in conjunction with Limmu Inara Multipurpose Cooperative Farmers Union. The Union purchased coffee from the farmers via primary coffee cooperatives, supplied coffee seeds, slashers and wire mesh to the farmers, and supported them in coffee seedling production. They also spear headed the Functional Adult Literacy scheme, providing capacity building particularly in the use of modern agricultural practices, with a view to improve the quantity and quality of coffee produced. Farm Organic International promoted marketing of the coffee internationally on behalf of the union, and Oromiyaa cooperative bank provided credit facilities through the cooperative societies. Most activities were implemented in Limmu Seka and Limmu Kosa districts. Consequently, some villages in Chora Botter and other nearby districts acted as a comparison group. Project outcomes ActivitiesIncrease coffee salesIncreased crop salesIncreased use of modern agricultural practicesIncreased crop production Accessibility to marketsIncreased coffee productionIncreased coffee revenue   Increased crop revenues Accessibility to other activitiesIncreased household incomeTraining and capacity buildingProvision of inputs (seeds, fertilisers)Membership in coffee cooperativeCredit facilities Linking smallholder coffee producers to sustainable markets Project date: March 2009 - April 2012 Evaluation: December 2014Publication: November 2015 Livelihoods Ethiopia2014/15 This diagram presents how the project was expected to achieve change, through project activities and outcomes that were expected to contribute to the overall goal of the project. EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES 2014/15: AFGHANISTAN BANGLADESH CAMBODIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLICCHAD ETHIOPIA LEBANON NICARAGUA PAKISTAN PHILIPPINES PHILIPPINES (humanitarian) POLICY & PRACTICE WEBSITE SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN   TANZANIA THAILAND UGANDA YEMEN  Results Evaluation Method Full version of this report and more information can be found at Oxfam’s Policy and Practice website: www.oxfam.org.uk/effectiveness For more information, contact Oxfam’s Programme Quality Team - ppat@oxfam.org.uk    Evidence of positive impact Commentary Increased quantity of coffee produced Project outcome On average intervention households produced 65.2 per cent higher quantity of coffee compared with households in comparison communities.Increased quantity of coffee soldParticipant households sold 1.27 times or 127 per cent more quantities of coffee on average, compared with households in comparison communitiesHousehold Asset Wealth (Wealth Index)Households in intervention areas are more likely to have higher household asset wealth compared with households in comparison communities. YESYESYESOverall Household income(New Global Indicator)Households in project areas had a 28.01 per cent increase in overall household income compared with households in the comparison communities. This indicator represents the new Oxfam GB Global Indicator for livelihoods and was statistically signicant different from zeroIncreased use of modern agricultural practices (any of the practices)On average, there was a 3.4 percentage point increase in the number of participant households reporting increased use of modern agricultural practices compared with non participants.Increased practice of compost manure and organic fertilizersOn average, there was a 5.2 percentage point increase in the number of participant households reporting increased use of compost manure and organic fertilizers compared with non participantsYESYESYESThe review sought to evaluate the project’s impact among the population of villages where the project was implemented. A ‘quasi-experimental’ evaluation design was used whereby data from interviews with households from villages where the project had been implemented and with households of neighbouring non-project villages were analysed using propensity –score matching and multivariate regression. See the ‘How are effectiveness reviews carried out?’ document for more information on evaluation design. Details about specic evaluation design used in this case are contained in the full report of the Effectiveness Review. Going forward Learning from the evaluation will be used for interventions of a similar nature and for future project designing in Ethiopia. The use of Functional Adult Learning (FAL) contributed to small holder farmers acquiring new skills and knowledge. Future market based value chain programming will integrate FAL into projects of a similar nature where possible. The Oxfam in Ethiopia team would also like support to develop FAL curriculum modules according to specic commodities and particular livelihoods such as pastoral, agro-pastoral and farming community interventions. Another learning from the project was the critical role of multiple stakeholders in their contribution towards positive outcomes of the project. Engagement them from the outset was crucial, so future livelihoods projects will use multi stakeholder platforms, where relevant, to enable improvements in value chain performance and promote effective and equitable risk management across it. Identifying and engaging women in market based programming at various parts of the chain that are best t, as well as providing specic areas of capacity building will continue. Oxfam country staff and implementing partners, with support, will become familiar with different tool kits in order to engage with various audiences. Future market based livelihood projects (honey value chain, dairy value chain, horticulture, oilseeds) will also seek to emulate connections between farmers and middlemen or cooperatives, and provide capacity building and training to smallholder farmers. Enabling access to key services as part of a business model that includes linking producer groups to nancial service providers, enabling small producers to access market information services, initiating and leveraging investment in infrastructure, and provision of new technologies for value addition, are also areas of capacity building support that value chain projects can emulate. Photo credit: Sven Tornn/Oxfam Increased revenue from coffee salesIntervention households obtained on average, 1.22 times or 122 per cent more revenue from coffee sales compared with comparison communitiesYES
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