Livelihoods in Somalia: Impact evaluation of community driven livelihood and food security initiatives in Lower and Middle Juba Regions | Food Security | Income

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This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, selected for review under the livelihoods thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in October 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the community-driven livelihood and food security initiatives in Lower and Middle Juba Regions project. The project’s overall objective was to contribute to improved income generation and food security of families in eleven regions in South Somalia. Project activities included a cash grant for household businesses
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  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES ‘enhancing effectiveness through evidence-based learning’  The project’s overall objective was to contribute to improved income generation and food security of families in eleven regions in South Somalia. Project activities included a cash grant for household businesses; provision of donkey carts for transport services; restocking of livestock herds; donation of agricultural equipment; donation of other agricultural inputs such as seeds; support in rehabilitation of irrigation systems including the donation of water pumps; and provision of cash for work. It should be noted that agricultural activities, including support in rehabilitation of irrigation systems, were not given attention as planned and consequently few of these activities were actually carried out. The project activities were implemented by Oxfam in conjunction with a local partner organisation – Wajir South Development Association (WASDA). Project outcomes ActivitiesWomen participate actively in communitiesChanged attitude towards women’s involvement in community decision-making   Community has improved access to water and transport for crops   Experience in project design, implementation and monitoringMore reliable production, especially during deir (short season)Increased sales and proftability Maintain income from milk and livestock salesDecreased food prices in local areaMeans of generating incomeIncreased stock in household businessesIncreased livestock ownership by householdsIncreased purchasing power for vunerable householdsEnvironmental benefts Establishment and capacity building of committeesTransfer of donkey cartsGrants for household businessesRehabilitation of irrigation systemsRestocking after 2011 droughtCash for workImproved availability of water for agricultureIncreased crop production and salesIncreased household income and food securityIncreased community involvement in project managementIncreased participation of women in community meetingsIncreased participation of household members in community groupsMore in kind support to othersIncreased household asset wealth Community driven livelihood and food security initiatives in Lower and Middle Juba Regions Project date: May 2010 - April 2013 Evaluation: October 2014Publication: November 2015 Livelihoods Somalia2014/15 This diagram presents how the project was expected to achieve change, through project activities and outcomes that were expected to contribute to the overall goal of the project. Outcomes that found evidence of positive impact are highlighted in green.EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES 2014/15: AFGHANISTAN BANGLADESH CAMBODIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLICCHAD ETHIOPIA LEBANON NICARAGUA PAKISTAN PHILIPPINES PHILIPPINES (humanitarian) POLICY & PRACTICE WEBSITE SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN   TANZANIA THAILAND UGANDA YEMEN  Results Evaluation Method Full version of this report and more information can be found at Oxfam’s Policy and Practice website: www.oxfam.org.uk/effectiveness For more information, contact Oxfam’s Programme Quality Team - ppat@oxfam.org.uk    Evidence of positive impact Commentary Increased livestock ownership by households Project outcome On average, the numbers of goats increased by 2 in intervention households while the number of sheep increased by about 50% in households that participated in the project compared with households that did not. Participation in community groupsParticipation of women and their household members increased by about 20 percentage points while participation of women alone in group meetings increased by about 12 percentage points in intervention areas compared with comparison areas. Increased income from milk salesOn average, there was a 15.9 percentage point increase in the number of participant households reporting increased income from milk sales compared with non-participants. YESYESYESCommunity involvement in project management On average, there was a 14 percentage point signicant difference between participant households and non-participants with regard to asking questions on how new projects benet them. This is important because by asking about project benets they can inuence the kind of activities based on immediate needs of the community.Household asset wealth (Wealth index)There is evidence to show that the wealth index of households in intervention areas has steadily increased since 2009 whereas that of the comparison households has remained almost constant.Increased income from household businesses Revenues obtained from household businesses were not signicantly different between the participant and non-participant households.YESYESNOThe review sought to evaluate the project’s impact among the population of villages where the project was implemented. A ‘quasi-experimental’ evaluation design was used whereby data from interviews with households from villages where the project had been implemented and with households of neighbouring non-project villages were analysed using propensity –score matching and multivariate regression. See the ‘How are effectiveness reviews carried out?’ document for more information on evaluation design. Details about specic evaluation design used in this case are contained in the full report of the Effectiveness Review. Going forward Learning from the review is being incorporated into the second phase of a similar project implemented in Somalia. The use of project committees, coined to help deliver projects in hard to reach areas due to prevailing insecurity, was found to be a key delivery model. Their involvement in future projects will be strengthened by improving training and monitoring involvement in future project activities. The review also identied the need to improve monitoring and follow up with project participants after being issued with project items. A training manual on business skills has been developed and in future, training will be conducted for all project participants before funds are distributed. Tools for continuous monitoring have also been developed and their use will be incorporated into future projects. In order to improve project participant skills to obtain grants for establishing business and other income generating activities, future screening processes for similar projects will incorporate analysis on culture dynamics. This will provide visibility on whether participants have previous knowledge of business or are interested in undertaking business which is particularly crucial for those involved in cash grants for household businesses. Photo credit: Maslah Mohamed/WASDA Use of donkey carts for income generationOn average there was a 5.9 percentage point increase in the number of participant households reporting the use donkey carts for transport services thereby increasing their income compared with households in comparison communities. YESIncrease in overall household income (New Global Indicator)Household income among project participants (as measured by consumption and expenditure) was not signicantly different between intervention and comparison households.NO
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