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Isis and Linnea Blk C Feb 23 What is Mad Cow Disease? Mad Cow Disease is the common name for a disease called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). BSE is a progressive neu
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  Isis and Linnea Blk C Feb 23 What is Mad Cow Disease? Mad Cow Disease is the common name for a disease called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). BSE is a progressive neurologic disease, meaning that it affects the central nervous system, and gets worse over time. Some of the symptoms are ataxia, jerky movements, seizures and hind leg failure. There is a human equivalent of this disease called Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease that can be caught by eating brain matter or spinal cord tissue of an infected cow. This is fatal and uncurable. Some of the symptoms of this can be the ones  previously mentioned as well as dementia, memory loss, and change in personality. It is caused by prion proteins. Nobody knows exactly why, but prion turns from a normal  protein (PrPC) into a mutated protein (PrPSc) without the cow’s body realizing it. Because of this, the cow’s body is not able to produce antibodies to fight it off. The function of Prion protein is mysterious and not determined at this point but scientists  believe it is important for the transportation of copper to cells, neuroprotection, and cellular defense against oxidative stress. Some gene mutations occur by changing a single amino acid while others add another amino acid into the sequence. These change the structure of PrP and cause misfolding of the  protein.         References All about BSE (mad cow disease). (2016, September 21). In U.S. food and drug administration . Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/ResourcesforYou/AnimalHealthLiteracy/ucm136222.htm Cheng, C. J., & Daggett, V. (n.d.). Molecular dynamics simulations capture the misfolding of the  bovine prion protein at acidic pH.  Biomolecules . http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3390/biom4010181 Kansas State University. (2008, September 13). Mad Cow Disease Also Caused By Genetic Mutation. ScienceDaily . Retrieved February 17, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080912075208.htm Mad cow disease - overview. (2014, November 14). Retrieved February 16, 2017, from http://www.webmd.com/brain/mad-cow-disease-basics#1 Murdoch, B. M., & Murdoch, G. K. (n.d.). Genetics of prion disease . Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589088/ PRNP gene. (2017, February 14). In U.S. national library of medicine . Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/PRNP
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