Missed Out: The role of local actors in the humanitarian response in the South Sudan conflict

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Since the latest conflict erupted in South Sudan in December 2013, more than 2.3 million people have been forced to flee their homes and 3.9 million (approximately one third of the population) do not have enough to eat. All humanitarian actors struggle to respond to these acute needs against a context of chronic poverty, ongoing conflict and insecurity, limited infrastructure and a significant funding shortfall. This study seeks to understand the strengths and challenges of working with national and local nongovernmental organisations in South Sudan’s conflict-driven emergency, and reviews how the broader humanitarian system facilitates or prevents their involvement. This paper is the latest in a series of research papers on the subject of humanitarian partnerships. Missed Opportunities: The case for strengthening national and local partnership-based humanitarian responses established the value of local and national organisations in responding to humanitarian emergencies, and Missed Again: Making space for partnership in the Typhoon Haiyan response looked at partnerships within the context of a disaster caused by a natural hazard. 
  &in partnership Missed Out: The role of local actors in the humanitarian response in the South Sudan conict    Acknowledgements April 2016 Cover: Women assisting in a food distribution in Mingkaman, South Sudan Alison Martin/Oxfam i ActionAid is a partner in the ‘Missed Opportunities’ and ‘Missed Again’ research series, but is not present in South Sudan. This report was commissioned by a consortium of UK-based international non-governmental organisations: CAFOD I  and Trócaire in Partnership, Christian Aid, Oxfam GB and Tearfund (ActionAid UK was involved in previous research in this series, but is not present in South Sudan). The research project was managed by Christian Aid’s Senior Advocacy and Policy Ofcer for East Africa, Natalia Chan, and supported by an advisory group including Nigel Timmins (Deputy Humanitarian Director, Oxfam GB), Anne Street (Head of Humanitarian Policy, CAFOD), Oenone Chadburn (Head of Humanitarian Support, Tearfund) and Mike Noyes (Head of Humanitarian Response and Resilience, ActionAid UK). The research was conducted and the report written by Dr Lydia Tanner (who was the lead) and Dr Leben Moro. The four commissioning NGOs have provided invaluable support both in South Sudan and the UK, and particular thanks are owed to Natalia Chan for her support in guiding the process. The participation in the study of both national and international members of the humanitarian community is testament to the commitment that exists to maximising the potential of partnership. We are grateful to all those who invested their valuable time in the research process.  Contents Acknowledgements 2Acronyms 4Glossary 5 Executive summary 61. Introduction 8 1.1. Purpose of the research 8 1.2. Methodology 8 2. Context - The humanitarian situation in South Sudan 103. The role of local and national actors 11 3.1. Relevance: how well humanitarian activities meet local needs 12   3.2. Effectiveness: how far have activities achieved their purpose 15   3.3. Efciency and value for money: a measure of outputs achieved as a result of inputs 17  3.4. Coverage: how far assistance reaches affected populations 19 3.5. Connectedness: how far emergency interventions take longer-term 21 and interconnected problems into account 4. National actors and the humanitarian system 23 4.1. Humanitarian coordination 24  4.2. Funding 25 4.3. Coordination with authorities 28 5. Conclusions 29 5.1. Recommendations 30 6. Bibliography 327. Appendices 34 7.1. The potential and contribution of partnership 34   7.2. Timeline 36 Endnotes 37  4 Missed Out:  The role of local actors in the humanitarian response in the South Sudan conict Acronyms ACT Action by Churches TogetherCBO Community-based organisation CERF Common Emergency Response FundCHF Common Humanitarian Fund HCT Humanitarian Country Team HPF Health Pooled Fund IASC Inter-Agency Standing CommitteeICWG Inter Cluster Working GroupIDP Internally displaced person INGO International non-governmental organisationNFIs Non-food itemsNGO Non-governmental organisationNNGO National non-governmental organisationOCHA Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OECD-DAC The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Development Assistance Committee OLS Operation Lifeline Sudan POC Protection of Civilians RRF Rapid Response Fund SPLM-IO Sudan People’s Liberation Movement in Opposition SRP Strategic Response Plan UN United Nations UNIDO Universal Intervention and Development OrganisationUNMISS United Nations Mission in South Sudan WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene WFP World Food Programme
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