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  Seismic Retrofitting of Conventional Reinforced Concrete Moment-Resisting Frames Using Buckling Restrained Braces By Zaid Al-Sadoon Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Doctorate in Philosophy degree in Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering University of Ottawa  © Zaid Al-Sadoon, Ottawa, Canada, 2016  Abstract ii   Abstract  Reinforced concrete frame buildings designed and built prior to the enactment of modern seismic codes of the pre-1970’s era are considered seismically vulnerable, particularly when they are subjected to strong ground motions. It is the objective of this research to develop a new and innovative seismic retrofit technology for seismic upgrading of non-ductile or limited ductility reinforced concrete frame buildings involving the implementation of buckling restrained braces. To achieve this objective, combined experimental and analytical research was conducted. The experimental research involved tests of large-scales reinforced concrete frames under slowly applied lateral deformation reversals, and the analytical research involved design and nonlinear analysis of laboratory specimens, as well as design and dynamic inelastic response history analysis of selected prototype buildings in eastern and western Canada. The research project started with a comprehensive review of the building code development in Canada to assess the progression of seismic design requirements over the years, and to select a representative period within which a significant number of engineered buildings were designed and constructed with seismic deficiencies. A similar review of seismic design and detailing provisions of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Standard A23.3 on Design of Concrete Structures was also conducted for the same purpose. Six-storey and ten-storey prototype buildings were designed for Ottawa and Vancouver, using the seismic provisions of the 1965 National Building Code of Canada, representative of buildings in eastern and western Canadian. Preliminary static and dynamic linear elastic analyses were performed to assess the effectiveness of upgrading the ten-storey reinforced concrete building designed for Ottawa. The retrofit methods studied consisted of lateral bracing by adding reinforced concrete shear walls, diagonal steel braces, or diagonal steel cable strands. The results indicated that the retrofit techniques are effective in limiting deformations in non-ductile frame elements to the elastic range. The numerical analyses were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of Buckling Restrained Braces (BRBs) as a retrofit method for seismically deficient reinforced concrete frame buildings. The experimental phase of research consisted of two, 2/3 rd  scale, single bay and single storey reinforced concrete frames, designed and constructed based on a prototype six-  Abstract iii  storey moment resisting frame building located in Ottawa and Vancouver, following the requirements of the 1965 edition of the NBCC. One test specimen served as a bare control frame (BCF) that was first tested, repaired and retrofitted (RRF) to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed retrofit methodology for buildings subjected to earthquakes in the City of Ottawa. The control frame was assessed to be seismically deficient. The second frame served as a companion non-damaged frame (RF) that was retrofitted with a similar retrofit concept but for buildings subjected to earthquakes in the City of Vancouver. A new buckling restrained brace (BRB) was conceived and developed to retrofit existing sub-standard reinforced concrete frames against seismic actions. The new BRB consists of a ductile inner steel core and an outer circular sleeve that encompasses two circular steel sections of different diameters to provide lateral restraint against buckling in compression of inner steel core. Mortar is placed between the two circular sections to provide additional buckling resistance. The inner core is connected to novel end units that allow extension and contraction during tension-compression cycles under seismic loading while providing lateral restraint against buckling within the end zones. The end units constitute an srcinal contribution to the design of Buckling Restrained Braces (BRBs), providing continuous lateral restraint along the core bar. The new technique has been verified experimentally by testing four BRBs on the two test structures under simulated seismic loading. The test results of the BRB retrofitted frames indicate promising seismic performance, with substantial increases in the lateral load and displacement ductility capacities by factors of up to 3.9 and 2.6, respectively. In addition, the test results demonstrate that the BRB technology can provide excellent drift control, increased stiffness, and significant energy dissipation, while the reinforced concrete frames continue fulfilling their function as gravity load carrying frames. The above development was further verified by an exhaustive analytical study using SAP2000. At the onset, analyses were conducted to calibrate and verify the analytical models. Two-dimensional, one-bay, one-storey models, simulating the BCF and RRF test frames, were created. The models were subjected to incrementally increasing lateral displacement reversals in nonlinear static pushover analyses, and the results were compared with those obtained in the test program. Material nonlinearity was modeled using “Links” to incorporate all lumped linear and nonlinear properties that were defined  Abstract iv  with moment-rotation properties for flexural frame members and with force-displacement properties for the diagonal buckling restrained braces. Comparison with test data demonstrated good agreement of the frame behaviour in the elastic and post-elastic ranges, and the loading and unloading stiffness. The research program was further augmented with nonlinear dynamic time history analyses to verify the feasibility of the new retrofit technique in multi-storey reinforced concrete frame buildings located in Canada and their performances relative to the performance-based design objectives stated in current codes. Prior to conducting the analyses, 450 artificial earthquake records were studied to select the best matches to the Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) according to the 2010 edition of the NBCC for Ottawa and Vancouver. Furthermore, additional analyses were conducted on buildings for the City of Ottawa based on amplified Uniform Hazard Spectrum compatible earthquake records. The nonlinear time-history response analyses were conducted using a model that permits inelasticity in both the frame elements and the BRBs. The results indicated that reinforced concrete buildings built before the 1970’s in the City of Ottawa do not require seismic retrofitting; they remain within the elastic range under current code-compatible earthquake records. The structural building performance is within the Immediate Occupancy level, and all structural elements have capacities greater than the force demands. In the City of Vancouver, buildings in their virgin state experienced maximum interstorey drifts of 2.3%, which is within the Collapse Prevention structural performance level. Improved building performance was realized by retrofitting the exterior frames with multiple uses of the BRB developed in this research project. The seismic shear demands were reduced in the columns, while limiting the deformations in the non-ductile frame elements to the elastic range. The lateral interstorey drift was limited to 0.92%, which lies within the Life Safety structural performance level.  
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