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   󰁐󰁡󰁧󰁥 󰀱 A REPORT ON “ANALYSIS OF OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL” Using OPNET 14.5 Modeler  NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY: SHOBHANK SHARMA ssharma5@ncsu.edu   󰁐󰁡󰁧󰁥 󰀲 ANALYSIS OF OSPF ROUTING PROTOCOL A.   Introduction   OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is an interior gateway routing protocol deployed typically in upper tier ISPs for intra-AS routing. It is a link state protocol employing Dijkstra’s algorithm to calculate least cost  path. The following report dwells into the OSPF routing protocol investigating the following: 1)   What are the ways of cost assignment supported by OSPF and what are the advantages and disadvantages of one over the other? 2)   How the load balancing feature affects throughput? 3)   What is the affect of dividing network into various areas? 4)   Comparison of OSPF with other routing protocols like EIGRP and RIP. Therefore the analysis covers new features introduced by OSPF in the field of routing protocols. OPNET simulation is used for the stated analysis. B.   Cost assignment in OSPF The cost or metric as assigned to an interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead necessary to allow  packet transfer across the interface [1]. OSPF offers two types of cost assignments- the first, implicit way is by assigning bandwidth to the interface and the cost relates to bandwidth inversely with the reference bandwidth of 1000000000. A more flexible way would be to allow the privileged network administrator to assign cost explicitly in some units as desired. The later way can take into account the infrastructure cost, delay, administrative domain, bandwidth or any defined parameter. Experimental setup : The experimental setup consists of four ethernet4_slip8_gtwy node models having  point to point (PPP link models) interconnections and exposed to three experimental scenarios: ã   With DS3 links ã   With all OC3 links ã   With one OC3 link and manual costs In the experiment we measure the utilization of various links in the three experimental settings. Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 show the results. Results:  Fig. 1, having all DS3 links, shows that all the links have utilization nearing to 100% and hence though economically viable due to cheaper DS3 links, it is not very efficient causing high load on links. Fig. 2 is an upgraded version of the previous scenario; in this all the links are OC3 and hence it is a costlier solution but gives lesser load on links. Fig. 3 is an intermediate solution in which there is only one OC3 link and costs are assigned manually. The cost can be assigned in such a way so that more traffic is on the link we want it to pass through. For example here we have tried to change path of traffic from A to D to pass through A to C and C to D as shown in Fig. 4. Hence the last scenario makes advantage of the flexibility offered by user defined cost assignment feature of OSPF. C.   Load Balancing feature of OSPF In today’s internet the shortest path routing protocols are not enough to maximize guaranteed node traffic loads, scalable and fast bandwidth reservations, hence load balancing comes to rescue. Load balancing can affect throughput positively for arbitrary traffic pattern [2]. Router can learn multiple routes to a destination using the same routing process and chooses the path with the lowest cost to destination. Load  balancing feature allows the routing process to install multiple routes in route table, to the same destination in order to balance the traffic flow.   󰁐󰁡󰁧󰁥 󰀳 F󰁩󰁧. 1 All nodes connected with PPP DS3 Link Fig. 2 All nodes connected with PPP OC3 -Model. Link-Model. Fig. 3 One link with PPP OC3 Link-Model and Fig. 4 Route when cost is manually assigned other links with PPP DS3 link model, with manual costs assigned. 󰁅󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁥󰁴󰁵󰁰󰀺  󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁥󰁴󰁵󰁰 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁺󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁳󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁬󰁡󰁲 󰁴󰁯󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁯󰁧󰁹 󰁡󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁩.󰁥. 󰁦󰁯󰁵󰁲 ethernet4_slip8_gtwy node models having PPP DS3 link model interconnections with subnets in the form of 100BaseT LAN node model. Application profile is configured to contain FTP application and Profile configuration is configured to download FTP traffic. One LAN model with 5 server workstations is connected to router A and another LAN model with 50   󰁐󰁡󰁧󰁥 󰀴 host workstations is connected to router C. The simulation is performed to find the routes and throughput characteristic of the link between router C and the connected subnet, for the two cases. F󰁩󰁧. 5 󰁒󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁥 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 A 󰁴󰁯 C 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧. F󰁩󰁧. 6 󰁒󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁥 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 A 󰁴󰁯 C 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧. 󰁒󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁳󰀺  F󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤󰁵󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁷󰁥 󰁯󰁢󰁴󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁮󰁡󰁰󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁳 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁷󰁮 󰁩󰁮 F󰁩󰁧. 5󰀭7. C󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁧 F󰁩󰁧. 5 󰁡󰁮󰁤 6, 󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁳 󰁣󰁬󰁥󰁡󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁮 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁳 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁣 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁰󰁡󰁳󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁯󰁮󰁬󰁹 󰁯󰁮󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁫 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁴󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁦 󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁲󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁯 󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁮󰁥 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁡󰁲 󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁫. F󰁩󰁧. 7 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁰󰁵󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󲀘󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧󲀙 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 󲀘󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧󲀙 󰁴󰁯󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁯󰁧󰁹. A 󰁦󰁵󰁲󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁤 󰁷󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳 󰁯󰁲 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁣󰁯󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳. B󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁣󰁯󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁯󰁰󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁺󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁭󰁡󰁸󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁺󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁰󰁵󰁴 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁮󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁧󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤󰁳 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁨 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁷󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳 󰁛2󰁝. F󰁩󰁧. 7 󰁔󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨󰁰󰁵󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁡󰁮󰁤 F󰁩󰁧. 8 󰁔󰁯󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁯󰁧󰁹 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁵󰁴 󰁬󰁯󰁡󰁤 󰁢󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧. 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁮󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁵󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁐󰁐󰁐 D󰁓3 󰁌󰁩󰁮󰁫 󰁍󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁬.  
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