Outline international and regional organization handout | Association Of Southeast Asian Nations

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Intlnand regional orgs
  THE NEWREGIONALISM  Regionalism  – connotes political movement basedon awareness of and loyalty to a region, combinedwith dedication to a region-wide agenda of somekind.  Regionalization  – creation or realignment of transactions and attitudes along regional lines and isa manifestation of globalization. Regionalization isa process with integration as its fruit.  Integration  – process by which states within a particular region increase their level of interactionwith regard to economic, security, political, or social and cultural issues. New Regionalism  – a comprehensive, multifacetedand multidimensional process, implying a change of a particular region from relative heterogeneity toincreased homogeneity with regard to a number of dimensions, the most important being culture,security, economic policies and political regimes. *What is NEW in the new regionalism? ‘OLD’ REGIONALISM - Also known as  first generation regionalism or classic regionalism - must be understood within a particular historicalcontext, dominated by the bipolar old !ar structure - urocentric and narrow, - formal and power and strategic considerationsinfluenced by cold war politics and was in manycases imposed by superpowers #hegemonicregionalism$ - introverted and main actors are nation-states - commenced by the end of the %econd !orld !ar and died out on &'()s ‘NEW’ REGIONALISM - Also known as  second wave regionalism or current wave regionalism -  *ew attitudes towards international cooperation andthe decentralization of the international system brought about by the collapse of communism andthe end of the cold war. - xtroverted, main actors include state and non-stateactors - ommenced on the end of the old !ar  *ew Regionalism as a response to Globalization +irst+ Regionalism seen as a way of emphasizingand protecting local cultures and local enterprise%econd+ *ew regionalism stems not only from protectionist impulses but from competitive oneshird+ hird !orldist ideologies emphasizing statecontrol of industry and economic self-reliance aredisplaced by the neoliberal economic doctrines. AFRICA he immediate aftermath of independencefor most African states in the late &')s and early&'()s did not immediately produce a particularlyencouraging climate for regionalism. &'(& and &'(/- asablanca, 0razzaville, 1onrovia1ay /, &'(2- 3A4 Organization o Ari!an nit#$ Aims- %overeign 5uality- *on-interference in internal affairs- erritorial integrity- ondemnation of political assassination andsubversion- 6eaceful settlement of disputes- 7edication to the emancipation of the remainingcolonial territories in the continent %roblems 7uring the cold war period, African statesshared one common cause – the ending of apartheidin %outh Africa and were also, to some extent, ableto maintain the superpowers8 interest in their affairs by taking advantage of their competition for influence. 9 &':)s- falling per capita income, lower per capita food production, and a smaller share for the region in theworld market for exports9 &''2he 3A4 established a Me!&anism orConli!t %re'ention( Management an)Resol*tion+Ari!an E!onomi! Comm*nit# was alsoestablished. 9 /))&;eading African states agreed to an initiativeknown as the New %artners&i, or Ari!a’sDe'elo,ment -NE%AD.( a comprehensive programme designed to address Africa8s increasingmarginalization in the face of globalization. AFRICAN NION -A . - established on 1ay /(, /))& - came into being in <uly ', /))/- 1uch more ambitious organization than its predecessor. O/0EC1I2ES  ã  6rovided in Article 2) of the onstitutive Act of theAfrican 4nion. ã Achieve greater unity and solidarity between the Africancountries and the peoples of Africa= ã 7efend the sovereignty, territorial integrity andindependence of its member states= ã Accelerate the political and socio-economic integrationof the continent= ã 6romote and defend African common positions on issuesof interest to the continent and its peoples= ã ncourage international cooperation, taking due accountof the harter of the 4nited *ations and the 4niversal7eclaration of >uman Rights= ã 6romote peace, security, and stability of the continent= ã 6romote democratic principles and institutions, popular  participation and good governance= ã 6romote and protect human and peoples8 rights inaccordance with the African harter on >uman and6eoples Rights and other relevant human rightsinstruments= ã nsure the effective participation of women in decision-making, particularly in the political, economic andsocio-cultural areas= ã stablish the necessary conditions which enable thecontinent to play its rightful role in the global economyand in international negotiations= ã 6romote sustainable development at the economic,social and cultural levels as well as the integration of African economies= ã 6romote co-operation in all fields of human activity toraise the living standards of African peoples= ã oordinate and harmonize the policies between theexisting and future Regional conomic ommunities for the gradual attainment of the ob?ectives of the 4nion= ã Advance the development of the continent by promotingresearch in all fields, in particular in science andtechnology= ã !ork with relevant international partners in theeradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent= ã 7evelop and promote common policies on trade, defenseand foreign relations to ensure the defense of thecontinent and the strengthening of its negotiating positions= ã @nvite and encourage the full participation of the African7iaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African 4nion. 13E AMERICAS OAS -Organization o Ameri!an States. - ounded on April 2) &': for the purposesof regional solidarity and cooperationamong its member states - 6romotes social and economic developmentin the !estern >emisphere throughcooperation MERCOS R #1ercado omBn del %ur$ - commenced on <anuary & &'' - envisaged as a response to the neoliberalagenda being promoted by the ma?or !estern countries and the institutionsdominated by them such as the !orld 0ank  - started with a commitment to Copenregionalism8 within the overall context andrules of the !orld rade 3rganization,rather than a protectionist device 4 Main Ingredients: &$ ;iberalization of trade amongst itsmembers and other states and regional organizations/$ he creation of customs union with acommon external tariff 2$ oordination of economic policies$ ooperation in certain specific sectors Rio De!laration 4 1 R3%4R was declared to beCstrategic alliance8 NAF1A #*orth American ree rade Agreement$ - an extension of the anada-4% ree radeAgreement of &':: to 1exico - focus is very much on trade rather than broader economic integration - criticized for it as being driven essentially by American industrial concerns to exploit acheaper labor market, and one that is lesssub?ect to environmental constraints ASIA 3IS1ORICAL /AC5GRO ND 9&' th  century - %outheast Asia became victims of uropeancolonialism.97uring !orld !ar @@- <apan expelled the !estern colonial powers fromthe region and sub?ected it to a brutal occupation.9ollowing !orld !ar @@- % A countries gained independence fromcolonizers, but became part of the old !ar.9&'- 4% together with rance, Dreat 0ritain, *ewEealand, Australia, 6hilippines, hailand, and6akistan founded the So*t&east Asia 1reat#Organization -SEA1O. . 9&'(&- 1alaysia, 6hilippines, and hailand gave rise tothe Asso!iation o So*t&east Asia -ASA. . 9&'(2- 1alaysia, 6hilippines, and @ndonesia founded MA%3ILINDO .9&'((- %outh Forean 6resident 6ark hung-hee createdthe Asia %a!ii! Co*n!il -AS%AC. .  Asso!iation o So*t&east Asian Nations -ASEAN. - founded on August :, &'(G- @ndonesia, 1alaysia, 6hilippines, %ingapore,hailand #A% A* $ 0runei, ambodia, ;aos, 1yanmar, and Hietnam- 3riginally designed as an anticommunistorganization.- ransformed into a cooperative grouping withnumerous committees and working groups. ASEAN members spelled out in the /ang6o6 De!laration that their main goals shall be+Ito accelerate the economic growth, social progress,and cultural development in the region through ?ointendeavours in the spirit of e5uality and partnershipJKandL to promote regional peace andstability.M 7 %illars &. economic/. security2. sociocultural SE1/AC5S 9 Asian e!onomi! !risis  – ;asted for almost /years. 9 Regional &aze  – 0rought about by the large forestfires in @ndonesia.9 %oliti!al *,&ea'al in East 1imor  – !hen@ndonesia invaded ast imor.
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