Pathway | Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

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  GravesB-cell & Limfosit T Trioglobulin, peroksidase tiroid, sodium iodida symporter, throtropin receptor Thyroid Stimulating Globulin Throtropin receptorActivate throtropin receptorigh T! & T T-cell produce in#ammatory $ytokinase Lo% thyrotropinncrease glycosamino 'elease tiroid &trioglobulin homoneglycans antiorbital muscle Antibody , ()* cyclic adenosine monophosphate'etro-orbital +broblastodine uptake, protein shyntesis, Thyroid gland gro%thophtalomopath  ipertiroidismipertiroidismeipersekresi hormone tiroid TS menurun T & T! etabolisme tubuhiperaktivitas SSGemetar, lelah, keringat bnyk akti+tas Gnafsu makan ntoleransi aktivitasdiare, produksi urine BB Atro+ ottdehidrasigg. nutrsi/lektrolit imbalance  ipertiroidisme T masuk nucleus01A response elementaryGen mengkode protein structural & protein regulatorengubah konsentrasi kalsium dan kaliumnotropik dan kronotropik meningkat/lectricsl remodellingaritmia  n Graves disease, B and T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmunity are kno%n to bedirected at ! %ell-kno%n thyroid antigens2 thyroglobulin, thyroid pero3idase,sodium-iodide symporter, and the thyrotropin receptor. o%ever, the thyrotropinreceptor itself is the primary autoantigen of Graves disease and is responsible forthe manifestation of hyperthyroidism. n this disease, the antibody and cell-mediated thyroid antigen-speci+c immune responses are %ell de+ned. 0irectproof of an autoimmune disorder that is mediated by autoantibodies is thedevelopment of hyperthyroidism in healthy sub4ects by transferring thyrotropinreceptor antibodies in serum from patients %ith Graves disease and the passivetransfer of thyrotropin receptor antibodies to the fetus in pregnant %omen. The thyroid gland is under continuous stimulation by circulating autoantibodiesagainst the thyrotropin receptor, and pituitary thyrotropin secretion issuppressed because of the increased production of thyroid hormones. Thestimulating activity of thyrotropin receptor antibodies is found mostly in theimmunoglobulin G5 subclass. These thyroid-stimulating antibodies cause releaseof thyroid hormone and thyroglobulin that is mediated by ,6)6-cyclic adenosinemonophosphate 7cyclic A8, and they also stimulate iodine uptake, proteinsynthesis, and thyroid gland gro%th.7edscape8
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