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  1 Creativity   11 LEAD IN ● Optional step. If this is the very first lesson of a newcourse with a new coursebook, you might want to start thelesson with a ‘getting to know each other / Keynote ’ activity.Here are two suggestions:1 Write all the students’ names on separate slips of paper and put them in a container. Shake them up and walk round the class, asking each student to take a slip of paper. Once they have done that, they find the student whose name they have and they sit down together. (If they draw their own name or that of someone they know, they should draw another slip.) Then give the pairs a limited time (no more than five minutes) to find out what they can about their partners, but they should try to discover something interesting, e.g. any unusual places the student has travelled to, if they have any different hobbies/interests/talents. At the end of the five minutes, nominate individual students to tell the class something about their partners, preferably something interesting. 2 Tell students that they are going to familiarize themselves with the organization of Keynote Proficient  . Explain to the class every unit in Keynote  begins with a TED Talk. Ask students if they are familiar with TED Talks and if they have ever watched one. Give them about fifteen minutes to browse through the Student’s Book and find the following: –a photo that they find particularly intriguing– a TED Talk that they think they will find of personalinterest– a topic that they think is particularly pertinent totoday’s world– a grammar point that they find tricky and need towork on– a writing text type that is likely to be useful in theirwork or studies. ● Optional step . Books closed. Ask students to work inpairs to write a definition of creativity. Elicit the differentdefinitions and discuss them as a class. ● Books open. Ask students to open their books at page 8and look at the photo. Elicit suggestions as to how it illustratesthe notion of creativity. (The photo shows an artist at work. Heappears to be copying an existing picture, though, possiblyonto the pavement, so it could be considered that this is notactually a creative activity.) ● Give students the title of the TED Talk (  Do schools kill Creativity?  ) and ask for initial reactions. Would they answer yesor no to the question? BACKGROUND 1 ●  Ask the class to read the text about Sir Ken Robinson andhis talk. If necessary, clarify the following words:  knighted (to knight)  meaning given the rank of knight by the queen, a veryhigh honour, and allowed to use the title Sir  ,  innate  meaningwithin/inside oneself. ● Put students in small groups to discuss the questions.Then encourage them to share their answers with the class, justifying their ideas.  Answers 1 He has focused on creativity within the educational system.2 It means ‘not allowing creativity to be expressed or developed’.3 Students’ own answers, but possibly the inclusion of fewer academic subjects in education and more that are creative, such as art and music. Creativity  1 UNIT AT A GLANCE THEME:  Creativity and how we express it in our everyday lives TED TALK: Do schools kill creativity?  Sir Ken Robinson talks about the imperative in schools to focus almost entirely on academic subjects like maths and languages at the expense of the creative subjects like dance and music  AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS: Rhythm and stress CRITICAL THINKING: The speaker’s aims PRESENTATION SKILLS:  Using humour GRAMMAR:  Definite and indefinite time LANGUAGE FOCUS: Expressions with statistics  VOCABULARY:  Creativity collocations PRONUNCIATION:  Emphasis and de-emphasis READING:   What I talk about when I talk about running, Sing while you work  LISTENING:  A company choir SPEAKING:  Creativity survey, Learning from experience, Describing likes and talents WRITING:  A progress report WRITING SKILL: Nominalization  12 1 Creativity  KEY WORDS 2  ● The aim of this section in every unit is to pre-teach some of the key words students will need to know in order to understand the TED Talk. It will also help them prepare to think about the main themes of the talk. ●  Ask students to read through sentences 1–6 (without looking at a–f) and try to guess the meaning of the words in context. Elicit some suggestions and write them on the board. Then students can check to see if any of their ideas are in a–f. (Alternatively, you could follow the procedure outlined in Teaching tip 4 on page 7 of the Introduction.)  ● Students can compare their answers with a partner and explain their choices before you check with the class.  Answers 1 e 2 a 3 b 4 f 5 c 6 d  ● Optional step.  To further check comprehension, ask follow-up questions: What kind of behaviour would you expect from a child with  ADHD ? Can you think of a recent contention   made by the government that you agree with? What was your favourite  humanities  subject at school? Can you think of  someone who has been  stigmatized   in the media recently?  AUTHENTIC LISTENING SKILLS Rhythm and stress 3a  ● Books closed. Explain that English is a stress-timed language. Ask if anyone can describe what that means. ● Books open. Ask students to check their ideas with the  Authentic listening skills box on page 9. ●  Ask them if they know what the alternative to stress timing is, and explain that it’s syllable timing, i.e. where each syllable takes approximately the same amount of time. Common syllable-timed languages are French, Spanish, Italian, Turkish and Japanese, and common stress-timed languages are English, Russian, Arabic and Finnish. Tap that stress! You can illustrate stress timing quite easily by building up a phrase that you ‘tap out’ to students; start with something simple, tapping on each underlined syllable (content word) below:  a small black cat sitting down Then increase the syllables in the words, but keeping the same time for each stressed syllable:  a little ginger cat sitting on the chair  These two phrases should take approximately the same amount of time to say.    T   E   A   C   H   I   N   G    T   I   P  ● 1 Tell students to read and listen to the extract from the TED Talk, underlining the words and syllables that are stressed.  Answer What these things have in common, you see, is that kids will take a chance. If they don’t know, they’ll have a go.  Am I right? They’re not frightened of being wrong. 3b  ● 1 Optional step.  Play the extract again for students to listen. Encourage them to tap out the stressed syllables.  ● Students work in pairs to practise saying the extract with stress timing. 3c  ● 2 Tell students that they now have to listen for the stressed words in another extract and complete it. Play the recording, twice if necessary.  ● Get students to check their answers in pairs.  Answers 1 don’t 2 say 3 wrong 4 same 5 creative 6 do 7 not 8 prepared 9 wrong 10 never 11 srcinal Note:  Remind your students to watch the TED Talk at home before you move on to Unit 1.1 in the class. Ask them to think about Ken Robinson’s definition of creativity.  1.1 Do schools kill creativity? 1  ● Books closed. Ask students what Ken Robinson’s definition of creativity is (   having srcinal ideas that have value  )   and how similar this is to their definitions from the last lesson.  ● Books open. Ask students to read the sentences and try to complete them from their memory of the talk.  ● 1.1 Play the first part of the TED Talk from 0.12–5.25 for students to check their answers and complete any they couldn’t remember.  Answers 1 literacy 2 lesson 3 sent 4 frightened/afraid/ scared 5 stigmatize 6 creativity 7 child, English 8 girlfriend, pleased  1 Creativity   13 Extra activity Frank sent … Check that students understand the joke in 3 above, i.e. that the little boy had interpreted frankincense  as Frank  sent  . Ask if students have any stories of this kind of verbal misinterpretation, and then tell them about a story (possibly not true) from World War 1, where an order was given at the front to a messenger to be relayed to headquarters. The message had to be passed from person to person, and the message that arrived at the headquarters was Send three- and-four pence, we’re going to a dance . Tell students that ‘three-and-four pence’ is a sum of money, and ask them to work in small groups to try to decipher the message. What it should be is Send reinforcements, we’re going to advance . Transcript  0.12 So I want to talk about education and I want to talk  about creativity. My contention is that creativity now is  as important in education as literacy, and we should treat it with the same status. (Applause) Thank you. That was it, by the way. Thank you very much. (Laughter) So, fifteen minutes left. (Laughter) Well, I was born … no. (Laughter)  0.45 I heard a great story recently – I love telling it – of a little  girl who was in a drawing lesson. She was six, and she was at the back, drawing, and the teacher said this  little girl hardly ever paid attention, and in this drawing  lesson, she did. And the teacher was fascinated. She went over to her, and she said, ‘What are you drawing?’  And the girl said, ‘I’m drawing a picture of God.’ And the teacher said, ‘But nobody knows what God looks  like.’ And the girl said, ‘They will, in a minute.’ (Laughter) 1.20 When my son was four in England – Actually, he was four everywhere, to be honest. (Laughter) If we’re  being strict about it, wherever he went, he was four that year. He was in the nativity play. Do you remember the story? He didn’t have to speak, but you know the  bit where the three kings come in? Now they come  in bearing gifts and they bring gold, frankincense and  myrrh. This really happened. We were sitting there and they, I think, just went out of sequence, because we talked to the little boy afterward and we said, ‘You OK with that?’ And he said, ‘Yeah, why? Was that wrong?’ They just switched. I think that was it.  Anyway, the three boys came in, little four-year-olds with tea towels on their heads, and they put these  boxes down, and the first boy said, ‘I bring you gold.’  And the second boy said, ‘I bring you myrrh.’ And the third boy said, ‘Frank sent this.’ (Laughter)  2.18 What these things have in common, you see, is that  kids will take a chance. If they don’t know, they’ll  have a go. Am I right? They’re not frightened of being wrong. Now, I don’t mean to say that being wrong is the same thing as being creative. What we do know  is, if you’re not prepared to be wrong, you’ll never come up with anything srcinal – if you’re not prepared to be wrong. And by the time they get to be adults,  most kids have lost that capacity. They have become frightened of being wrong. And we run our companies  like this, by the way. We stigmatize mistakes. And we’re now running national education systems where  mistakes are the worst thing you can make. And the  result is that we are educating people out of their creative capacities. Picasso once said this, he said that  all children are born artists. The problem is to remain  an artist as we grow up. I believe this passionately, that we don’t grow into creativity, we grow out of it. Or  rather, we get educated out of it. So why is this?  3.20 I lived in Stratford-on-Avon until about five years ago. In fact, we moved from Stratford to Los Angeles. So you can imagine what a seamless transition,  you know, this was. (Laughter) Actually, we lived  in a place called Snitterfield, just outside Stratford, which is where Shakespeare’s father was born. Are  you struck by a new thought? I was. You don’t think of Shakespeare having a father, do you? Do you? Because you don’t think of Shakespeare being a child, do you? Shakespeare being seven? I never thought of it. I mean, he was seven at some point. He was  in somebody’s English class, wasn’t he? (Laughter) How annoying would that be? (Laughter) ‘Must try  harder.’ (Laughter) Being sent to bed by his dad, you  know, to Shakespeare, ‘Go to bed, now!’ You know, to William Shakespeare. ‘And put the pencil down.’ (Laughter) ‘And stop speaking like that.’ (Laughter) ‘It’s confusing everybody.’ (Laughter)  4.32  Anyway, we moved from Stratford to Los Angeles,  and I just want to say a word about the transition,  actually. My son didn’t want to come. I’ve got two kids;  he’s twenty-one now, and my daughter’s sixteen. He didn’t want to come to Los Angeles. He loved it, but  he had a girlfriend in England. This was the love of his  life, Sarah. He’d known her for a month. (Laughter) Mind you, they’d had their fourth anniversary by then,  because it’s a long time when you’re sixteen. Anyway,  he was really upset on the plane, he said, ‘I’ll never find  another girl like Sarah.’ And we were rather pleased  about that, frankly – (Laughter) because she was the  main reason we were leaving the country. (Laughter)  5.25 But something strikes you when you move to  America and when you travel around the world. Every education system on Earth has the same hierarchy of subjects. Every one. Doesn’t matter where you  go. You’d think it would be otherwise, but it isn’t. At the top are mathematics and languages, then the  humanities, and at the bottom are the arts. Everywhere on Earth. And in pretty much every system too, there’s  a hierarchy within the arts. Art and music are normally  given a higher status in schools than drama and dance. There isn’t an education system on the planet that teaches dance every day to children the way we teach them mathematics. Why? Why not? I think this  is rather important. I think maths is very important,  14 1 Creativity   but so is dance. Children dance all the time if they’re  allowed to, we all do. We all have bodies, don’t we? Did I miss a meeting? I mean … (Laughter) Truthfully, what happens is, as children grow up, we start to educate them progressively from the waist up. And then we focus on their heads. And slightly to one side. 6.20 If you were to visit education, as an alien, and say ‘What’s it for, public education?’ I think you’d have to conclude, if you look at the output, you know, who  really succeeds by this, who does everything that they  should, who gets all the brownie points, you know, who are the winners – I think you’d have to conclude the whole purpose of public education throughout the world is to produce university professors. Isn’t  it? They’re the people who come out the top. And I used to be one, so there. You know, (Laughter) and I  like university professors, but you know, we shouldn’t  hold them up as the high-water mark of all human  achievement. They’re just a form of life, you know,  another form of life. But they’re rather curious, and I  say this out of affection for them. There’s something curious about professors. In my experience – not  all of them, but typically, they live in their heads. They live up there, and slightly to one side. They’re disembodied, you know, in a kind of literal way. They  look upon their body as a form of transport for their  heads. (Laughter) You know. Don’t they? It’s a way of  getting their head to meetings. (Laughter) 7.31 Our education system is predicated on the idea of  academic ability. And there’s a reason. The whole  system was invented, round the world, there were no  public systems of education, really, before the 19th century. They all came into being to meet the needs of  industrialism. So the hierarchy is rooted on two ideas. Number one, that the most useful subjects for work are  at the top. So you were probably steered benignly away from things at school when you were a kid, things you  liked, on the grounds you would never get a job doing that. Is that right? Don’t do music, you’re not going to be  a musician; don’t do art, you won’t be an artist. Benign  advice – now, profoundly mistaken. The whole world is engulfed in a revolution. And the second is academic  ability, which has really come to dominate our view of intelligence, because the universities designed the  system in their image. If you think of it, the whole system of public education around the world is a protracted  process of university entrance. And the consequence  is that many highly talented, brilliant, creative people think they’re not, because the thing they were good at at  school wasn’t valued, or was actually stigmatized. And I think we can’t afford to go on that way.  8.36 In the next 30 years, according to UNESCO, more  people worldwide will be graduating through education than since the beginning of history. Suddenly, degrees  aren’t worth anything. Isn’t that true? When I was a  student, if you had a degree, you had a job. If you didn’t have a job, it’s because you didn’t want one.  And I didn’t want one, frankly, so … (Laughter) But  now kids with degrees are often heading home to carry on playing video games, because you need  an MA where the previous job required a BA, and  now you need a PhD for the other. It’s a process of  academic inflation. And it indicates the whole structure of education is shifting beneath our feet. We need to  radically rethink our view of intelligence.  9.18 We know three things about intelligence. One, it’s diverse. We think about the world in all the ways that we experience it. We think visually, we think in sound, we think kinesthetically. We think in abstract terms, we think  in movement. Secondly, intelligence is dynamic. If you  look at the interactions of a human brain, as we heard  yesterday from a number of presentations, intelligence  is wonderfully interactive. The brain isn’t divided into compartments. In fact, creativity – which I define as the  process of having original ideas that have value – more often than not comes about through the interaction of different disciplinary ways of seeing things. And the third thing about intelligence is, it’s distinct. 10.00 I’m doing a new book at the moment called ‘Epiphany’, which is based on a series of interviews with people about how they discovered their talent. I’m fascinated by how people got to be there. It’s  really prompted by a conversation I had with a wonderful woman who maybe most people have  never heard of, she’s called Gillian Lynne. Have you  heard of her? Some have. She’s a choreographer,  and everybody knows her work. She did ‘Cats’ and ‘Phantom of the Opera’. She’s wonderful. I used to  be on the board of The Royal Ballet, in England, as  you can see. Anyway, Gillian and I had lunch one day  and I said, ‘How did you get to be a dancer?’ And  she said it was interesting. When she was at school,  she was really hopeless. And the school, in the ’30s, wrote to her parents and said, ‘We think Gillian has  a learning disorder.’ She couldn’t concentrate; she was fidgeting. I think now they’d say she had ADHD. Wouldn’t you? But this was the 1930s, and ADHD  hadn’t been invented, you know, at this point. It wasn’t an available condition. (Laughter) You know,  people weren’t aware they could have that. (Laughter)  Anyway, she went to see this specialist. 11.03 So, this oak-panelled room, and she was there with  her mother, and she was led and sat on this chair  at the end, and she sat on her hands for 20 minutes while this man talked to her mother about all the  problems Gillian was having at school. And at the end of it, because she was disturbing people; her  homework was always late; and so on, little kid of eight. In the end, the doctor went and sat next to Gillian, and said, ‘Gillian, I’ve listened to all these things that your mother’s told me, I need to speak to  her privately.’ So he said, ‘Wait here. We’ll be back; we won’t be very long,’ and they went and left her. But as they went out of the room, he turned on the
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