Remnan Enterprise, Inc vs. CA | Damages | Negligence

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Remnan Enterprise, Inc vs. CA
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   SECOND DIVISION [G.R. No. 125018. April 6, 2000]REMMAN ENTERPRISES, INC.,  petitioner, vs. COURT OF APPEALS ! CRISPIN E. LAT, respondents .  #r!$i% & E C I S I O N'ELLOSILLO, J  .( REMMAN ENTERPRISES, INC. (REMMAN), and CRISPIN E. LAT are adjoining landowners in Barangay Bugtong Na Pulo, Lia Ci! . T#e land o$ La!%on!aining an area o$ &.' #e%!ares is agri%l!ral and lan!ed os!l wi!# $ri! !rees w#ile REMMAN o%%ies a land area o$ $i$!een (&*) #e%!ares si+ () #e%!ares o$ w#i%# are de-o!ed !o i!s igger siness. REMMAN/s land is one and a #al$ (&) e!ers #ig#er in ele-a!ion !#an !#a! o$ resonden! La!.Soe!ie in 0l &1'2 La! no!i%ed !#a! REMMAN/s was!e disosal lagoon was alread o-er$lowing and innda!ing one3$or!# (&42) o$ La!/s lan!a!ion. 5eade se-eral reresen!a!ions wi!# REMMAN ! !#e $ell on dea$ ears. On &2Mar%# &1'*, a$!er alos! one (&) #e%!are o$ La!/s lan!a!ion was alread innda!ed wi!# wa!er %on!aining ig anre, as a resl! o$ w#i%# !#e !rees growing on !#e $looded or!ion s!ar!ed !o wi!#er and die, La! $iled a %olain! $or daages wi!# reliinar anda!or injn%!ion agains! REMMAN. La! alleged !#a! !#e a%idi! o$ !#e soil in #is lan!a!ion in%reased e%ase o$ !#e o-er$low o$ !#e wa!er #ea- wi!# ig anre $ro REMMAN/s igger $ar.REMMAN denied all !#e allega!ions o$ La! and raised as an a$$ira!i-e de$ense !#a! easres s%# as !#e %ons!r%!ion o$ addi!ional lagoons were alread ado!ed !o %on!ain !#e was!e wa!er %oing $ro i!s igger !o re-en!an daage !o !#e adjoining es!a!es. A$!er %ond%!ing an o%lar inse%!ion and e-ala!ing !#e e-iden%e o$ o!# ar!ies !#e Regional Trial Cor! $ond !#a! indeed REMMANs was!e disosal lagoon o-er$lowed wi!# !#e %on!aina!ed wa!er $looding one (&) #e%!are o$ La!/s lan!a!ion. T#e was!e wa!er was an6le3dee and %ased dea!# and des!r%!ion !o one (&) ja%6$ri! !ree, $i$!een (&*) %o%on! !rees, one #ndred  !wen! 3!wo (&77) %o$$ee !rees, and an nse%i$ied ner o$ ango !rees, ananas and -ege!ales. As a %onse8en%e, !#e !rial %or! ordered REMMAN!o indeni$ La! P&',19*.:: $or los! ro$i!s $or !#ree (;) %ro ears and P;:,:::.:: as a!!orne /s $ees. <&=  arie T#e de%ision o$ !#e %or! a quo was a$$ired in toto  !#e Cor! o$ Aeals. <7= In !#is Petition for Review on Certiorari REMMAN ra s !#a! we ass on !#e$indings o$ !#e !rial %or! as well as o$ !#e aella!e %or!. REMMAN insis!s !#a! $a%!al $indings o$ lower %or!s a e assed on, re-iewed and re-ersed> (a) w#en !#e %on%lsion is a $inding gronded en!irel on se%la!ion, srises or %onje%!res? () w#en !#e in$eren%e ade is ani$es!l is!a6en, asrd or iossile? (%) w#en !#ere is gra-e ase o$ dis%re!ion? (d) w#en !#e jdgen! is ased on a isare#ension o$ $a%!s? (e) w#en !#e Cor! o$ Aeals ani$es!l o-erloo6ed %er!ain rele-an! $a%!s no! dis!ed  !#e ar!ies and w#i%#, i$ roerl %onsidered, wold js!i$ a di$$eren! %on%lsion? ($) w#en !#e %on%lsions o$ !#e Cor! o$ Aeals are no! sor!ed  !#e e-iden%e on re%ord? (g) w#en $a%!s o$ ss!an%e were o-erloo6ed w#i%#, i$ %orre%!l %onsidered, ig#! #a-e %#anged !#e o!%oe o$ !#e %ase? and, (#) w#en !#e $indings o$ !#e Cor! o$ Aeals are no! in a%%ord wi!# w#a! reasonale en wold readil a%%e! are !#e %orre%! in$eren%es $ro !#e e-iden%e e+!an! in !#e re%ords. <;= Indeed, in !#e ao-een!ioned ins!an%es, !#e $a%!al ilie o$ a ar!i%lar %ase a e assed on, re-ersed or odi$ied  !#is Cor!. @! e+aina!ion o$ !#e re%ord re-eals !#a! all !#e ao-e ins!an%es are na-ailing. ro !#is oin! o$ -iew alone !#e ins!an! e!i!ion is disissile. Ne-er!#eless, we s#all dis%ss !#e #erender !o disose $inall o$ !#e %on!en!ions o$ REMMAN. First, REMMAN arges !#a! i!s liaili! $or !#e daages s$$ered  La! was no! %learl es!alis#ed.Be disagree. Dring !#e o%lar inse%!ion %ond%!ed  !#e lower %or! w#erereresen!a!i-es o$ o!# ar!ies were resen!, i! was es!alis#ed !#a! !#e was!ewa!er %on!aining ig anre was %on!inosl $lowing $ro REMMAN/s igger $ar !o La!/s lan!a!ion. T#e wa!er was an6le3dee and $looded one (&) #e%!are o$ La!/s lan!a!ion. T#e o-er$low o$ !#e a%idi%, alodoros and oll!ed wa!er %on!ined $ro 0ne &1'2 !o Mar%# &1'* !#s des!ro ing one  (&) ja%6$ri! !ree, $i$!een (&*) %o%on! !rees, one #ndred an !wen! 3!wo (&77) %o$$ee !rees, and an nse%i$ied ner o$ ango !rees, ananas and -ege!ales. <2= In addi!ion, !#e aella!e %or! $ond !#a! !#ere was indeed negligen%e on !#e ar! o$ REMMAN w#i%# dire%!l %ased !#e daage !o !#e lan!a!ion o$ La!. T#s 3 no-ero + + + Negligen%e was %learl es!alis#ed. I! is n%on!ro-er!ed !#a! !#e land o$ aellee was $looded on a%%on! o$ !#e o-er$low o$ a%idi%, alodoros and oll!ed wa!er %oing $ro !#e adja%en! igger $ar o$ aellan! soe!ie in Ma &1'2. T#is resl!ed in !#e iairen! o$ !#e rod%!i-i! o$ aellee/s land as well as !#ee-en!al des!r%!ion and dea!# o$ se-eral $ri! !rees, s%# as %o%on!s, %o$$ee, ja%6$ri!s, ananas and o!#er lan!s + + + +  Aellan! %anno! a-oid liaili! e%ase !#eir negligen%e was !#e ro+ia!e %ase o$ !#e daage. Aellee/s roer! was ra%!i%all ade a %a!%#3asin o$ oll!ed wa!er and o!#er no+iosss!an%es e! ing $ro aellan!/s igger w#i%# %old #a-e een re-en!ed #ad i! no! een $or !#e negligen%e o$ aellan! arising $ro i!s> (a) $ailre !o oni!or !#e in%reases in !#e le-el o$ wa!er in !#e lagoons e$ore, dring and a$!er !#e #ea- downors w#i%# o%%rred dring !#e rain on!#s o$ &1'2? () $ailre !o agen! !#e e+is!ing lagoons rior !o !#e in%iden!, no!wi!#s!anding !#e $a%! !#a! a! !#e !ie o$ !#e $looding, !#e igger #ad grown !o a %aa%i! o$ &&,::: #eads, and %onsidering!#a! i! was reasonal $orseeale !#a! !#e e+is!ing was!e disosal $a%ili!ies were no longer ade8a!e !o a%%ooda!e !#e in%reasing -ole o$ was!e a!!ers in s%# a ig $ar? and ore ior!an!l ,(%) !#e reea!ed $ailre !o %ol wi!# !#eir roise !o aellee. <*= Second    , REMMAN arges !#a! !#e !rial %or! as well as !#e Cor! o$ Aeals s#old no! #a-e reje%!ed i!s re8es! $or !#e rod%!ion o$ La!/s in%oe !a+ re!rns. A%%ording !o REMMAN #ad La!/s in%oe !a+ re!rns een rod%ed, !#e isse o$ !#e alleged daages s$$ered  La! wold #a-e een se!!led.T#is argen! is oo!, i$ no! !ri!e. or !#is a!!er #as een laid !o res! w#en we a$$ired !#e Cor! o$ Aeals/ de%ision in an earlier %ase in-ol-ing !#e sae ar!ies. <=  In ss!aining !#e !rial %or!/s 8as#al o$ !#e soena duces  tecum re-iosl issed %oelling La! !o rod%e #is in%oe !a+ re!rns $or !#e ears &1'73&1', !#e aella!e %or! e+lained !#a! !#e rod%!ion o$ !#e in%oe !a+ re!rns wold no! ne%essaril ser-e !o ro-e !#e se%ial and a$$ira!i-e de$enses se!   REMMAN nor re! La!/s !es!ion regarding !#e losses #e ss!ained de !o !#e igger . T#e !a+ re!rns  per se %old no! re$le%! !#e !o!al aon! o$ daages s$$ered  La!, as in%oe losses $ro a or!ion o$ !#e lan!a!ion %old e o$$se!  an ro$i! deri-ed $ro !#e res! o$ !#e lan!a!ion or $ro o!#er sor%es o$ in%oe. Con-ersel , losses in%rred $ro o!#er sor%es o$ in%oe wold e !o!all nrela!ed !o !#e in%oe $ro !#e ar!i%lar or!ion o$ !#e lan!a!ion $looded wi!# was!e a!!er %oing $ro REMMAN/s igger . <9= Third  , REMMAN %on!ends !#a! !#e daages allegedl ss!ained  La! #a-e no! een sa!is$a%!oril es!alis#ed.  nigel Be a no! %on-in%ed. T#e $a%!al $indings o$ !#e %or! a quo rig#!l sor! i!s %on%lsions on !#is rese%! 3Coing now !o !#e isse o$ daages, Be $ind aellan!/s allega!ions no! well3!a6en. Aellan! %on!ends !#a! a%!al and %oensa!or daages re8ire e-iden!iar roo$, and !#ere eingno e-iden%e resen!ed as !o !#e ne%essi! o$ !#e award $or daages, i! was erroneos $or !#e lower %or! !o #a-e ade s%# award. I! s! e reeered !#a! a$!er !#e o%lar inse%!ion, !#e%or! a 8o rendered an in-en!or o$ dead and ro!!en !rees and lan!s $ond in aellee/s roer! . Aellee also !es!i$ied on !#e aro+ia!e annal #ar-es! and $air ar6e! -ale !#ereo$. Signi$i%an!l , no oosi!ion or %on!ro-er!ing e-iden%e was resen!ed  aellan! on !#e a!!er. 5en%e, aellan! is ond !#ere and %anno! now e #eard !o %olain. As %orre%!l #eld  !#e %or! a 8o> An o%lar inse%!ion #as een %ond%!ed  !#e !rial %or!. T#e in-en!or o$ !#e !rees daaged and !#e i!eied -ala!ion la%ed !#erein  ri-a!e resonden! a$!er !#e o%lar inse%!ion w#i%# is no! re!!ed  !#e e!i!ioner, is !#e ore a%%ra!e indi%a!or o$ !#e said aon! ra ed $or as daages. I$ !#e -ala!ion is indeed nreasonale,e!i!ioner s#old resen! %on!ro-er!ing e-iden%e o$ !#e $air ar6e! -aleo$ !#e %ros in-ol-ed. T#e !rial %or! #eld !#a! !#e ri-a!e resonden!
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