Resilience in Thailand: Impact evaluation of the climate change community-based adaptation model for food security project | Agriculture

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This evaluation is presented as part of the Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, selected for review under the resilience thematic area. This report documents the findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation carried out in December 2014 that sought to assess the impact of the activities of the development and scale up of a climate change community-based adaptation model for food security project. Oxfam and local organization Earth Net Foundation (ENF) have worked together since 2004 to promote organic rice farming and fair trade marketing in Yasothon province. The project under review was also implemented in partnership with the Healthy Public Policy Foundation and Climate Change Knowledge Management and was carried out in two provinces – three sub-districts of Yasothon in the Northeast, and one sub-district in Chiang Mai in the North. The project had three specific objectives: 1) increase resilience and adaptation capacity of small scale farmers to weather variability and climate change through the development of a self-sustainable climate change adaptation model
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  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES ‘enhancing effectiveness through evidence-based learning’  EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW SERIES 2014/15: AFGHANISTAN BANGLADESH CAMBODIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLICCHAD ETHIOPIA LEBANON NICARAGUA PAKISTAN PHILIPPINES PHILIPPINES (humanitarian) POLICY & PRACTICE WEBSITE SOMALIA SOUTH SUDAN   TANZANIA THAILAND UGANDA YEMEN Oxfam and Earth Net Foundation (a local organisation in Thailand), have worked together since 2004 to promote organic rice farming and fair trade marketing in Yasothon province. The project under review was also implemented in partnership with the Healthy Public Policy Foundation and Climate Change Knowledge Management and was carried out in two provinces - 3 sub-districts of Yasothon in the Northeast, and 1 sub-district in Chiang Mai in the North. The project had three specic objectives: 1. Increase resilience and adaptation capacity of small scale rice farmers to weather variability and climate change through the development of a self-sustainable climate change adaptation model. 2. Scale up the implementation of the model to reach new communities and support the national development agenda on climate change adaptation and food security. 3. Foster cooperation among NGOs, community based organisations, scholars, local and central government and the private sector to achieve the objectives above. Due to resource constraints, the surveys and evaluation for this review were conducted only in the Yasothon sub-districts. Drivers/characteristicsof resilienceImprovement in wealth ActivitiesIncrease in revenues from agricultural productionIncreased agricultural diversifcation Increase income diversifcation More water retention facilitiesIncreased agricultural productionUse weather forecast to plan annual riceImproved awareness of climate changeWorkshop on risk and vulnerabilityProvide weather forecastWealth indicators (assets and housing conditions) Access to creditIncrease informationCapacity building and ongoing vulnerabilitySmall grantsIncrease knowledgeFood security / diversitySchool investment Development and scale up of a climate change community-based adaptation model for food security Project date: January 2011 – October 2013Evaluation: December 2014Publication: December 2015 Resilience Thailand2014/15 This diagram presents how the project was expected to achieve change, through project activities and drivers / characteristics of resilience.  Results Evaluation Method Full version of this report and more information can be found at Oxfam’s Policy and Practice website: www.oxfam.org.uk/effectiveness For more information, contact Oxfam’s Programme Quality Team - ppat@oxfam.org.uk The review sought to evaluate the impact the project on both organic rice farmers and members of their local associations. Looking at other rice farmers in the area allowed the review to assess whether the project had ‘spillover’ effects by means of direct project participants passing on their skills and knowledge in the community. A ‘quasi-experimental’ evaluation design was used collecting and analysing data from households directly and indirectly affected by the project, and from households in nearby communities not supported by the project. Propensity-score matching and multivariate regression models were estimated. See the document ‘How are effectiveness reviews carried out?’ for more information on evaluation design. Full details about the specic evaluation design used in this case are contained in the full report. Going forward The review concludes that the farmers’ organisations involved in the project continuously improved both eco-system friendly agriculture and target premium markets. The model used to diversify crop portfolios will therefore be recommended to partners working with forest communities intending to move away from single-crop agriculture. Oxfam in Thailand will focus its attention on pushing for a national system for a fair trade scheme, to benet farmer groups by creating alternative domestic markets and by incentivising farm adaptation. Photo credit: Oxfam in Thailand    Evidence of positive impact Commentary Improved awareness of climate change Project outcome Only organic farmers who participated in the project were found to be signicantly more aware of climate change in nearly all three areas. Organic farmers in the comparison group suggested being aware only in two areas. Improved agricultural production Evidence of signicantly higher agricultural production of fruit products for both overall and organic beneciaries. No evidence of either higher rice or higher vegetable production. Yes/organic farmers onlyMixedImproved knowledge No evidence of change among project participants in their attitude toward farming practice, but clear positive effect of the project on water management practices. Improved knowledgeIncreased agricultural diversication Evidence of higher number of crops cultivated by organic farmers and by community based organisation farmers, relative to the comparison groups. MixedYesUse of weather forecasting to plan annual rice No evidence of project impact in this area: both intervention and comparison rice farming households were found to be comparable in the use of weather forecasting to plan rice production. No  Linked to project logic YesYesYesYesYesImproved revenues for selling agricultural products Rice farming households in the intervention groups generated a total value of all agricultural production that was 92% higher than that of non-project participants. Their total value of rice production sold was 153% higher than that of non-project participants. YesNoImproved weather forecasting information No evidence of project impact in this area: both intervention and comparison rice farming households were found to be similar in the use of weather forecasting information. NoYes Access to credit Organic rice growers that were part of the project have access on average to nearly two sources of credit. Organic growers in the comparison group have access on average only to one source. Yes / organic farmers onlyYesImproved water management facilities There is evidence that overall farmers and organic farmers participating in the project made better use of their own water management techniques, but the project farmers have a higher water storage capacity than in the comparison group. YesYesResilience index Positive impact on resilience index in both organic farmers in the project and non-organic farmers. Organic project farmers scored higher than non-organic farmers in the province. YesYesOverall wealth Project participants were found to be signicantly better off relative to both samples and comparison rice farmers. YesNoFood security Organic rice farmers were found to have a marginally more diversied diet than the relevant comparison group. No evidence of severe food security was found between any groups. MixedNoInvestment in education There was no evidence at any level that the project beneciaries had directly increased households’ expenditure on schooling. NoNo
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