Self-Protection and Coping Strategies of Refugees from Syria and Host Communities in Lebanon | Unrwa

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Lebanon has felt the impact of the Syrian crisis politically, socially and economically. Five years into the crisis and with a war on its doorstep, Lebanon now hosts the highest number of refugees per capita in the world. This research project aimed to improve Oxfam’s understanding of the protection challenges faced by refugees from Syria as well as the protection concerns arising from the coping strategies that they use to try to meet those challenges, and the issues faced by host communities in Lebanon. The study also looks at the livelihood challenges and coping strategies that can give rise to protection issues, particularly for vulnerable refugee populations. The research results were used to contribute to the Oxfam discussion paper ‘Lebanon Looking Ahead in Times of Crisis’.
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  RESEARCH REPORT JULY 2015 www.oxfam.org   SELF-PROTECTION AND COPING STRATEGIES OF REFUGEES FROM SYRIA AND HOST COMMUNITIES IN LEBANON    A study conducted by Merits Partnership in collaboration with Oxfam Lebanon has felt the impact of the Syrian crisis politically, socially and economically. Five years into the crisis and with an all-out war on its doorstep, Lebanon now hosts the highest number of refugees per capita in the world. This research project aimed to improve Oxfam’s understanding of the protection challenges faced by refugees from Syria as well as the protection concerns arising from the coping strategies that they use to try to meet those challenges, and the issues faced by host communities in Lebanon. The study also looks at the livelihood challenges and coping strategies that can give rise to protection issues, particularly for vulnerable refugee populations. The research results were used to contribute to the Oxfam discussion paper ‘ Lebanon Looking Ahead in Times of Crisis ’ .  2 Self-Protection and Coping Strategies of Refugees from Syria and Host Communities in Lebanon   Oxfam Research Reports  are written to share research results, to contribute to public debate and to invite feedback on development and humanitarian policy and practice. They do not necessarily reflect Oxfam policy positions. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of Oxfam. For more information, or to comment on this document, email Valentina Bacchin at vbacchin@oxfam.org.uk  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Oxfam is extremely grateful to all the individuals and local authorities and civil society members who have accepted to participate in the research through interviews as well as feedback on the preliminary findings. For protection reasons, the pictures and names of the households have not been recorded or shared in the report. The active participation of Oxfam staff as well as national and international organizations with whom the initial results were discussed has helped greatly in shaping the rest of the research and this report. Meeting interviewees was made possible by the active support of the Oxfam team in Bekaa and of partner organizations in other governorates. In particular, we would like to thank Utopia in Tripoli, Najdeh in all the Palestinian camps and gatherings targeted, and DPNA in Saida.    3 Self-Protection and Coping Strategies of Refugees from Syria and Host Communities in Lebanon  ACRONYMS  ALEF Act for Human Rights CLA Counseling and Legal Assistance CS Collective Shelter GBV Gender-based violence GSO General Security Office HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ICLA Information, Counseling and Legal Assistance ID Identity document ILO International Labor Organization IS Informal settlement ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ITS Informal tented settlement MEAL Monitoring, evaluation, accountability and learning NFI Non-food item OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs PARD Popular Aid for Relief and Development PHC Public health center PRL Palestine refugees in Lebanon PRS Palestine refugees from Syria TOR Terms of reference UK United Kingdom UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNRWA United Nations Relief and Works Agency US$ United States dollar WASH Water, sanitation and hygiene WFP World Food Programme  4 Self-Protection and Coping Strategies of Refugees from Syria and Host Communities in Lebanon   CONTENTS Introduction ...................................................................................................... 5   1   Context and Purpose of the Research ..................................................... 5   1.1 Context ................................................................................................. 5 1.2 Purpose of the research ..................................................................... 6 1.3 Research scope ................................................................................... 6 2   Methodology and Approach ..................................................................... 7   3   Research Findings: Refugees from Syria .............................................. 12   3.1 Income ................................................................................................... 12 3.2 Shelter and Food ................................................................................... 18 3.3 Legal Status ........................................................................................... 21 3.4 Security and Safety ............................................................................... 23 3.5 Health ..................................................................................................... 25 3.6 Education ............................................................................................... 27 3.7 Cross-Cutting challenges ..................................................................... 28 3.8 Conclusions: Refugees from Syria ...................................................... 30 4   Research Findings  –  Host Communities in Lebanon: Competing for Scarce Resources for Already Vulnerable Populations .......................... 31   4.1 Income ................................................................................................... 32 4.2 Shelter and Food ................................................................................... 34 4.3 Security and Safety ............................................................................... 35 4.4 Health ..................................................................................................... 37 4.5 Cross-cutting challenges ..................................................................... 37 4.6 Conclusions: Host Communities in Lebanon ..................................... 40 Appendix  –  List of Documents Consulted ................................................... 41   Appendix  –  Regional Profiles ........................................................................ 50   Notes ............................................................................................................ 54
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