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Treating the Patient with Spina Bifida Dental Hygiene III: Disability Research Paper Jeremy Jones Sunday, June 26, 2016 Spina bifida is a neurological birth defect that occurs during pregnancy, sometimes it can be seen on an ultrasound and other times it is not detected until the child is born. Spina bifida comes in three different forms, ranging in different severities. This article will discuss the disability in depth, the effects is has on the body,
   Treating the Patient with Spina BifdaDental Hygiene III: Disability Research Paper Jeremy JonesSunday June !  !#$   Spina bifda is a neurological birth de%ect that occurs during pregnancysometimes it can be seen on an ultrasound and other times it is not detecteduntil the child is born& Spina bifda comes in three di'erent %orms ranging in di'erent se(erities& This article will discuss the disability in depth the e'ectsis has on the body the e'ects it has on the oral ca(ity and what dental treatments or appointment modifcations are needed i% any& The term )spina bifda* was frst coined in the mid $ ##+s by Pro%essor ,icholas Tulp who was studying groups o% indi(iduals with similar symptoms& In the mid $-##+s .io(anni Battista /orgagni lin0ed lower1limb de%ormity andhydrocephalus with spina bifda& 2s stated be%ore spina bifda is a neurological birth de%ect that a'ects numerous births each year and is one o% the most common birth de%ects in the world& There are three di'erent types o% spina bifda: 3$4Spina bifda occulta5 this specifc %orm is not (isible on the s0in the s0in is le%t intact and there is no herniation in the spinal cord region onthe bac0& It is usually disco(ered accidentally when an 61ray o% the bac0 is needed& This is the least se(ere %orm and the least common&3!4/eningocele5 this specifc %orm creates a cyst flled with cerebrospinal 7uid on the bac0 along the spinal cord& This is a se(ere %orm and is rare&384/yelomeningocele5 this specifc %orm is the most se(ere and the most common the meninges and the spinal cord push their way through  into the cyst& Spinal surgery is re9uired to f6 this condition and is usually done a%ter the child is born&  The rest o% the article will discuss e'ects and treatment o% myelomeningocele due to the %act that it is the most common and the most se(ere& hile the e6act cause o% spina bifda is un0nown it is thought to ha(elin0s to a lac0 o% %olic acid in the mother+s diet during pregnancy hyperthermia due to %e(er during pregnancy or history o% spina bifda in the immediate %amily& It is slightly more common in Hispanic children than children o% non1Hispanic srcin and a'ects males to %emales e9ually& Since research has shown that a lac0 o% %olic acid in the mother+s diet can a'ect the child in utero it is highly important that the mother is ta0ing a %olic acid supplement or getting enough %olic acid through her diet to pre(ent these debilitating neural tube de%ects& /ost children who ha(e spina bifda are diagnosed while in utero5 thus the population is a'ected be%ore the child is born and caries with them throughout their entire li%e& There is no cure %or spina bifda and there are no periods o% remission once you are born with spina bifda you ha(e it %or the rest o% your li%e un%ortunately& This disability a'ects the body crucially a%ter the baby is born they willundergo a ma;or operation to close the de%ect in the (ertebrae and push the spinal cord bac0 into place& This de%ect in the (ertebrae and the malposition o% the spinal cord will cause paralysis below the area o% the mal%ormation5 generally a'ecting the bowels and bladder and the lower e6tremities in  (ery %ew cases the arms can be a'ected depending on how high up the (ertebrae the mal%ormation occurred& 2long with paralysis o% the lower portion o% the body the brain and head are a'ected by a condition 0nown as hydrocephalus& Hydrocephalus 0nown as )water or 7uid on the brain* can be e6tremely deadly i% not ta0en care o% soon enough5 surgeons will place a (entriculoperitoneal shunt in the head to help drain the 7uid o' the brain& <nce this shunt is placed there will be less pressure on the brain helping the child to %unction more properly& Due to the %act that the child is most li0ely paraly=ed %rom the site o% the mal%ormation down and urinary and bowel incontinence is possibly anticholergenics are generally prescribed to help with this condition& 2lso li9uid oral antibiotics can be gi(en to help with the potential %or urinary tract in%ection due to the %act that most o% these children ha(e some %orm o% catheter5 %ailure to maintain a clean and sterile catheter can cause in%ectionsin the body and the need %or antibiotics may be re9uired& <ral antibiotics canad(ersely a'ect the oral ca(ity because some o% these medications can contain a large amount o% sugar which i% the child or caregi(er is not per%orming ade9uate oral care dental caries can occur& >hildren with spina bifda are a high1caries ris0 patient %or se(eral reasons:3$4The use o% li9uid oral antibiotics %or urinary tract in%ections can ha(ehigher doses o% sugar&3!4Inade9uate nutrition&
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