Strengthening Frameworks to Monitor and Evaluate Climate Adaptation in Uganda | Climate Resilience

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  Climate change Keywords: Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD), climate change adaptation, climate resilience, Uganda Br ie fing Policy pointers For effective climate change risk management in Uganda, the government needs to integrate indicators on climate change into national and sectoral development policies and strategies. National indicators that were initially designed to monitor development can be adjusted to measure climate impacts. Climate-sensitive indicators developed from the ‘bottom up’ at district level can enhance local government plans and monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Local government frameworks need to feed into and support monitoring and evaluation at the national level by the sectoral ministries and the coordinating Office of the Prime Minister. Strengthening frameworks to monitor and evaluate climate adaptation in Uganda Uganda’s reliance on natural resources renders its economy extremely vulnerable to climate change. This makes it essential to track progress on adaptation initiatives and ensure the whole country is on a path towards climate resilience. This briefing examines monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks currently used by the government of Uganda and considers how they could be strengthened to provide evidence on climate change adaptation, and to measure the impacts of national and sectoral policies. It presents the findings of detailed research by IIED and the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance (ACCRA) to develop indicators that could be applied at district level consistently throughout the country, supported by a simple data collection system. These indicators could provide climate-relevant data for M&E frameworks at national and sectoral levels and could also be integrated into local government performance assessment and reporting tools. The need for a national framework Any national framework for assessing a country’s climate change strategy needs to take into account changes in resilience and development. In Uganda, policy on climate change has developed significantly over the past five years, but there is no overall system yet in place to track and measure progress towards achieving resilience. Existing government development indicators tend to focus on outputs from the implementation of specific plans, such as the number of people trained in aspects of climate change adaptation, without evaluating the longer-term outcomes that result from a combination of government interventions in a variety of sectors. Uganda ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and developed a National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) in 2012. More recently, the government has started developing a national Performance Measurement Framework (PMF) to assess its progress towards achieving its policy objectives. It has at its disposal some existing tools that can integrate climate change adaptation and risk reduction indicators:   ã The Output Budget Tool from the Ministry of Finance can support selected indicators for funding   ã The scorecard from the Office of the Prime Minister reports on the performance of output indicators by sector against budget provisions   ã The performance assessment tool from the Ministry of Local Government assesses the performance of local governments across different sectors. Issue date April 2015Download the pdf at   http://pubs.iied.org/17287IIED AFRICA  IIED  Briefing  What is still lacking is a harmonised monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the country as a whole. Introducing TAMD in Uganda  To investigate ways of addressing this shortfall and supporting climate change M&E in Uganda, IIED and ACCRA conducted research into ways of using the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) methodology. 1  TAMD is a twin-track conceptual framework that countries can use to assess the effectiveness of climate change adaptation. As Figure 1 shows, it evaluates both institutional climate risk management (Track 1) and adaptation and development performance (Track 2). The processes in both tracks are linked to each other, so the framework makes it possible to assess not only whether development outcomes bring better local climate resilience but also whether they aggregate at larger scales to contribute to climate-resilient development. This methodology has been developed and tested in Kenya, Tanzania, Nepal, Pakistan, Mozambique, Ethiopia and Cambodia. 2  IIED and ACCRA identified several ways in which the TAMD methodology could potentially support climate change M&E in Uganda by developing adaptation indicators at district level, which could then be used to strengthen national monitoring tools. In particular, they envisaged that district-level indicators provided by TAMD could:   ã Enable the National Planning Authority to link medium- and long-term development indicators in the national and district development plans to climate change indicators; ã Inform the national performance assessment tool for local governments; ã Enrich the national PMF for climate change that is currently under development with support from the French Development Agency (ADETEF). Developing district-level indicators The main task of the research was to develop district-level indicators to measure adaptation performance. IIED engaged LTS Africa to conduct a training of trainers in the TAMD methodology. Staff from a range of relevant ministries 3  and district officials from planning, natural resource management and production sectors were trained in aspects of applying TAMD at the local level, such as using theories of change 4  and an institutional scorecard. 5  Five districts were selected on the basis of their distinct ecological characteristics (see Box 1). Following an initial training session in Bulambuli, the trainers then went to the four other districts (Bundibugyo, Nakasongla, Kotido and Otuke) and developed theories of change for each. They prioritised community-led adaptation initiatives and explored their outputs, outcomes and impacts. The process was participatory, involving representatives from four sub-counties in each of the districts. It enabled a set of indicators to be developed at district level, including indicators of climate resilience together with corresponding assumptions. A simple data collection system can link district-level indicators to national climate change indicators Figure 1. The TAMD framework GlobalLocalSub-nationalNationalTRACK 1TRACK 2CLIMATE RISK MANAGEMENTInstitutions, policies, capacitiesADAPTATION PERFORMANCEPopulations, systems (natural, economic, managed etc)Development performanceAttribution, learning Source: Brooks and Fisher (2014) 7  IIED  Briefing  These local indicators (called ‘Track 2 indicators’ in the TAMD framework) 1  evaluate changes in vulnerabilities and stages of development within communities over time. They show whether or not development has taken place and to what extent climate vulnerabilities and risks have reduced. As Table 1 (overleaf) demonstrates, many of the indicators developed in the course of the research were applicable in all five districts. 6  Others were more relevant to some districts or sub-counties than others, depending on the priority adaptation interventions proposed in particular areas. These indicators included, for example, the number of energy saving technologies being taken up, number of adaptation interventions, and area of land cultivated. Linking local and national indicators IIED and ACCRA’s expectations for ways in which TAMD could potentially support climate change M&E in Uganda were largely met: these local results can now be used to strengthen national tools such as the performance assessment tool for local governments and the PMF. The tool for local governments already includes some of the indicators developed during the research. However, because it reports them as development indicators, it does not identify them Box 1. The five districts chosen to develop local indicators Bulambuli and Bundibugyo  are highland ecosystems. The steep mountainous nature of the terrain makes these areas prone to severe soil erosion, which causes destructive landslides, loss of soil fertility, pollution and siltation of rivers. During heavy rains, lowlands are flooded and river banks burst. These environmental risks reverse the benefits of development interventions by making local communities vulnerable to food insecurity and loss of property and life. Nakasongola, Kotido and part of Otuke  are within the cattle corridor and are semi-arid, experiencing prolonged dry spells characterised by intense heat, heavy winds and dust storms. In these districts, relief rain falls in hilly areas where moist air cools as it rises but this causes frequent torrential thunderstorms. These conditions damage livelihoods by destroying crops and pasture, and increasing pests and diseases. Figure 2. How district-level indicators feed into national-level outcome indicators National indicator Availability of quality data, analyses and tools to aid decision making on climate change and vulnerability for planners, local authorities and communities District-level indicators  (impact, outcomes, outputs) National indicator Systems put in place for accountability and monitoring of resource use for the implementation of the NCCP and implementation strategy National indicators   ã Integration of climate change into formal planning and budgeting processes   ã Sufficient financial resources and absorption for the implementation of the NCCP and implementing strategy made available Measurement of progress towards meeting adaptation policy priority strategic intervention objectives Specified in the National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) and measured by the national Performance Measurement Framework (PMF). National indicator Number of adaptation outputs fully achieved in the NCCP priority sectors Note: The national-level outcome indicators will be decided during discussions under the national PMF.  Knowledge Products The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) promotes sustainable development, linking local priorities to global challenges. We support some of the world’s most  vulnerable people to strengthen their voice in decision making.LTS Africa is a leading provider of technical services in support of sustainable development in the climate change, forestry,  water, and natural resource management sectors. It operates in Eastern and Southern Africa.The Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance in Uganda, formed by CARE,  World Vision, Oxfam and Save the Children, works to increase government, development and humanitarian actors’ use of evidence in developing and implementing policies and interventions that improve poor people’s adaptive capacity. Contact Susannah Fisher susannah.fisher@iied.orgIrene Karani irene-karani@ltsi.co.uk80–86 Gray’s Inn Road London, WC1X 8NH United KingdomTel: +44 (0)20 3463 7399 Fax: +44 (0)20 3514 9055 www.iied.orgIIED welcomes feedback via: @IIED and www.facebook.com/theiiedThis research was funded by UK aid from the UK Government, however the views expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of the UK Government. IIED  Briefing  as climate-sensitive, which prevents them from being used to help track progress towards adaptation. This omission can easily be rectified through a screening process in which the Ministry of Environment’s Climate Change Department and other ministries go through the sectoral plans together and mark the indicators that are climate-sensitive. Other indicators not currently captured in the tool will need to be added in districts where they are significant indicators of climate resilience, and resourced so that local governments are motivated to track and report on them.Figure 2 illustrates the linkages between the indicators developed at district level and the proposed PMF. For example, investment in meetings to raise awareness within the district government will lead to better planning and budgeting of adaptation projects at the national level, provided that effective monitoring and accountability systems are put in place. This will enhance community resilience in the long term. Collection of data on adaptation-related actions at the district level will also provide quality information to inform decisions on climate change by local governments, planners and communities. By improving the allocation of technical and financial resources for climate change adaptation and development projects, this will in turn enhance community resilience. At national level the PMF will be used to aggregate this data and ensure the accountability and monitoring of resource use. Conclusions Research at district level using the TAMD framework has shown how local community-identified indicators can be linked to national M&E frameworks and integrated into existing tools. If adopted, the data this provides will make it possible to monitor changes in climate resilience and assess whether or not development gains are being realised and retained. To enable district-level adaptation indicators to be linked with national-level climate change indicators, a simple data collection system needs to be put in place, applying systematic and standardised reporting on adaptation across all districts. The data collected needs to be just sufficient to monitor whether districts are on track on key indicators related to climate-sensitive aspects of local livelihoods. This information can then be reported through the sectoral ministries to the Ministry of Environment’s Climate Change Department and to the Office of the Prime Minister (the coordinating office for all ministries), giving a truly national picture. Irene Karani, Tracy C Kajumba, Susannah Fisher and Rose Ochieng Irene Karani is director of Land, Trees and Sustainability (LTS) Africa. Tracy Kajumba is acting national programme coordinator of the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance (ACCRA). Susannah Fisher is a senior researcher in IIED’s Climate Change Group. Rose Ochieng is an analyst in Land, Trees and Sustainability (LTS) Africa. Notes 1  For a comprehensive account of the TAMD framework, see Brook, N et al. (2013) An operational framework for tracking adaptation and measuring development (TAMD). IIED, London. http://pubs.iied.org/10038IIED /  2  See www.iied.org/tamd for more information /  3  Ministries of local government, water and environment — climate change department, works, agriculture, animal industry and fisheries, gender, labour and social development, and the Uganda National Meteorology Authority. /  4  A theory of change is a tool used to map the sequence of development interventions from inputs to outcomes, while examining assumptions about how these changes might happen. /  5  A scorecard is a tool in the TAMD framework that is used to assess climate risk management processes of government institutions. /  6  For more information see ACCRA (2015) Tracking adaptation and measuring development in Uganda. Integrated report on data collection for climate monitoring and evaluation in the five districts of Bundibugyo, Otuke, Nakasongola and Bulambuli. /  7  Brooks, N and Fisher, S (2014) Tracking adaptation and measuring development: A step-by-step guide. IIED, London. http://pubs.iied.org/10100IIED Download the pdf at   http://pubs.iied.org/17287IIEDTable 1. Track 2 indicators common to the five districts Outputs Number of awareness meetings/trainings heldNumber of trees planted/acreage under tree coverNumber of boreholes and dams constructedNumber of households with food storage facilities Outcomes Number of households with improved food yields/agricultural production Number of men and women/households accessing and using weather and climate informationPercentage of waterborne diseases reported at the health care centreNumber of households with a minimum of two meals per day Impact Number of households with increased/improved incomes Number of landslides reported
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