Style Guide for Notes, References, and Bibliographies

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Oxfam's guide for how to construct clear and useful notes, references, and bibliographies when writing up your research.
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    www.oxfam.org.uk/policyandpractice   STYLE GUIDE FOR NOTES, REFERENCES, AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES N OTES   ã  Use endnotes rather than footnotes for policy papers, research reports, and books. Use 1, 2, 3, not i, ii, iii superscripts to number the notes. ã  The superscript number should appear outside the punctuation mark (full stop, semi-colon, comma, etc.), except when it refers to material in parentheses, in which case it should appear inside the closing bracket. ã  The notes section should go immediately after the end of the main text, before the references or bibliography, but after any appendices. ã  Give URLs wherever possible. Books, manuals, and campaign reports :  For long, complex documents, it may be a good idea to start by using footnotes, to make reviewing the document easier during the consultation process. They can then be converted to endnotes before the document goes into the production process. R EFERENCES   It is not necessary to support every piece of information with a reference. But the following must be supported with full details: ã  sources of all quotations; ã   all facts based on another writer‘s srcinal research; ã  references to particular published documents; ã  the source and evidence for any controversial statements. Use Table 1  to help you supply the relevant details of a publication in the correct style. It describes the standard (UK) English style for referencing the cited source: e.g. a published book; a published  journal; a chapter in a book; an article in a journal or newspaper; or an unpublished document. Table 1  illustrates the typographic conventions to use for every kind of source that you might want to cite. Citation style If there is time and space, it can be useful to create a bibliography that contains the full details of all the references, and then just refer to the author‘ s name and the year of publication in the endnotes. Otherwise, put all citations in the endnotes. Provide full details for each reference: author(s) or editor(s)  ( date ) title and sub-title , and (for published works) place of publication  and name of publisher  ; or (for unpublished works) place of srcin  and name of commissioning organisation      R   E   S   E   A   R   C   H    G   U   I   D   E   L   I   N   E   S    There is no need to reverse the order of the author‘s surname and first name or initial in endnotes, because notes are not presented alphabetically. So ‗Bloggs, W. B.‘ is correct in a list of references or bibliography, but this author should appear as ‗W. B. Bloggs‘ in an endnote reference. To avoid repetition, use the ibid  . and op. cit  . convention: ã   ibid.   (short for ibidem = ‗in the same place‘) is used to refer t o the immediately preceding reference if it is exactly the same source. So ‗Bloggs 2004‘ may be immediately followed by ‗ ibid  .‘, or by ‗ ibid  . p.325‘. ã   op. cit  . (short for opero citato = ‗in the work already cited‘) is used to refer to a source cited in a recent note (but not the source immediately preceding the present one). So you could write ‗Khan, op. cit  .‘. But if you have cited more than one work by Khan, differentiate it  by adding the date: ‗Khan (2001)   op. cit  .‘. Other useful abbreviations : edn. (edition), ed. and eds. (edited by), tr. (translator), comp. (compiler), ad. (adaptor), vol. (volume), rev. (revised), p. or pp. (page or range of pages). If an organization is listed more than once in the bibliography, write out its full name on the first mention, giving initials in parentheses, then use the initials thereafter, e.g: ã  Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1995) Book title , Publisher, Place of publication ã  DfEE (1997) Book title , Publisher, Place of publication ã  DfEE (1999) Book title , Publisher, Place of publication Alternative reference style for books and some research reports Use the ‗Harvard‘ system for references in long reports and books if you prefer. References are flagged up in parentheses in the text, giving the name of the author(s) or editor(s) and the date of publication, e.g: (Bloggs 2004), (Smith and Jones eds. 1998), (Jones et al  . 2008), or ‗as Bloggs (2004) states …‘. Then provide full details (see option 1) in a separate ‗references‘ section (presented alphabe tically by surname). B IBLIOGRAPHY ‗References‘ comprise an alphabetical list (by author‘s name) of all the documents referred to in the text. A bibliography is a list of recommended or essential reading. It may contain more or fewer works than those cited in the text. It should observe the same typographic conventions as those used in a list of references, as shown in Table 1 .    T ABLE 1:   O XFAM STYLE GUIDE FOR CITATIONS IN REFERENCES ,  NOTES ,  OR BIBLIOGRAPHIES   Example Explanation Save the Children UK  (2004 ) ‗Infant Mortality Rates and the Millennium Development Goals: A Missed Opportunity‘, London: Save the Children UK.  A report or paper distributed online or in print.  Title in single inverted commas, with upper-case initial letters. If no author is named, the text should be attributed to the commissioning organisation. (N.B. If the document is in a series with a title, this can be given, e.g. Oxfam International (2007) ‗Rising to the Humanitarian Challenge in Iraq‘, Briefing Paper 105, Oxford: Oxfam GB.)  J. Yau (2001) ‗Bill of Rights: Human Rights Working Group Report‘, http://www.hrc.org (last accessed  August 2001).  A text on a website.  Inverted commas and upper-case initials for title, followed by the full URL and the date when the website was last checked. The URL has no terminal stop if it comes at the end of a reference. Give the title of the document (not just the URL), in case the link becomes out of date. Note:   the author‘s surname would come first in a list of references or a bibliography, e.g.  Yau, J.   www.economist.com A website. Give the basic URL only, unless referring to specific content as above. The World Bank‘s Resources on Social Safety Nets www.worldbank.org/safetynets An online resource.  Could be part of a website, portal, or a sub-site. Title, followed by URL. S. Holden  (2004)  AIDS on the Agenda: Mainstreaming HIV/AIDS in Development and Humanitarian Programmes , Oxford: Oxfam GB. A published book.  Title and subtitle in italics, with upper case initial letters. Place of publication precedes name of publisher. G. Teke, M. Khan, and B. Wiseman  (1998) Labelling in Development Policy  , London: Sage.  A published book by multiple authors . Note:   in a Bibliography, the first named author‘s initial goes after their surname, e.g. Teke, G., M. Khan, and B. Wiseman   R. Palmer   (1997a) Contested Lands in Eastern and Southern Africa , Oxford: Oxfam GB. The first of two works by the same author  , published in the same year. R. Palmer   (1997b) Contested Lands   in North and West Africa , Oxford: Oxfam GB. The other work by the same author  , published in the same year. R. Palmer and I. Birch  (1992) Zimbabwe: A Land Divided  , Oxford: Oxfam GB.  A book by two authors , the first of whom has already featured in the list. Multi-authored works should always follow single-authored works, even if published earlier. Note:  in a list of references or a bibliography, reverse the order of only the first named author and their initial, e.g. Palmer, R. and I. Birch   T. Parfitt (2008) ‗Opposition claims Georgia president rigged election victory‘, the Guardian , 7 January.  An article in a newspaper (online or print). Title of article in single inverted commas with lower-case initial letters; title of newspaper in italics. Unattributed articles are listed under their title: ‗Educating India‘s ―untouchables‖‘, (2008) the Guardian , 2 January.    Oxfam International (2009) ‗A third of  Afghans at risk of hunger shows need for urgent aid reforms‘, Oxfam International, 19 August 2009, http://www.oxfam.org/en/pressroom/pr essrelease/ (last accessed 19 August 2009).  A press release (online or in print). Title in single inverted commas with lower case initial letters; name of organisation or source, followed by the date of the release. A. Tomlin   (1996) ‗Refugees —   labelling and access‘, in Teke et al  . (eds.) (1998). A chapter in an edited collection, cited separately in the list.  Title of chapter in single inverted commas with lowercase initial letters; title of book is not repeated, but identified by the name(s) of the editor(s) and date of publication. Note that et al  . should be set in italics, with a full stop after al (because it is short for et alia   = ‗and others‘).   L. Woldu   (1996) ‗Changing attitudes towards violence against women‘, in N. Moore (ed.) Learning About Sexuality  , New York: Population Council.  A chapter in an edited collection not cited separately in the list . Title of chapter in single inverted commas with lower-case initial letters; title of book in italics, with upper-case initial letters. M. Shafique   (1999) ‗Oral rehydration therapy in rural Egypt‘, Studies in Family Planning   34(3): 315  – 27.  An article in a journal . Title of article in single inverted commas with lowercase initial letters; title of journal in italics with upper-case initial letters. No comma between name of journal and number of volume. Volume number followed by issue number in parentheses, without a space. Issue number followed by page numbers, preceded by a colon and a space. Elide page numbers, (315  – 27, not 315  – 327), unless doing so would cause confusion. B. Yeats   (2002) ‗The Nature of the Refugee Problem‘, paper pr  esented at a conference on the International Protection of Refugees, Montreal, Canada, 23  – 26 April 2002.  An unpublished paper given at a conference or workshop. Title in single inverted commas, with upper-case initial letters. D.P. Zelenker   (2001) Correspondence with author. A private communication . (Note: no space between initials; this applies in every case.)
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