Taha & wAw Alphabets Terminology-9

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Taha & wAw Alphabets Terminology
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  {Taha} & {wAw}, The Universal Methods of Writing –   Alphabets Terminology 0 Taha & wAw Alphabets Terminology Writing Geometric Method {Taha} { TaYa } –  { aYaT } (  هَط ) Writing Arabic Way Method {wAw} { w w } –  { wAw } ( واو ) Table of Contents 1- Consonant Letters & Vowels ................................................................................................................. 1 2- Dynamic & Static Letters ....................................................................................................................... 1 3- Static Letters & Static Mark .................................................................................................................. 1 4- Dynamic Letters & Movements ............................................................................................................ 1 5- Hard & Soft Consonant letters .............................................................................................................. 1 6- Additive Arabic & Latin Letters ............................................................................................................. 2 7- Short & Long Movements ..................................................................................................................... 2 8- Aleph & Very long movements ............................................................................................................. 2 9- Arabic Vowels & Movements ................................................................................................................ 2 10- English Vowels & Consonants ........................................................................................................... 3 11- Geometric Method {Taha} & {wAw} Method ................................................................................... 4 12- English Vowels & wAw Method ........................................................................................................ 4 13- French Vowels & wAw Method ........................................................................................................ 5 14- Arabic Vowels & Geometric Method ................................................................................................ 6 15- English Vowels & Geometric Method ............................................................................................... 6 16- French Vowels & Geometric Method ............................................................................................... 6 17- Geometric Texts & Geometric Method ............................................................................................ 7 18- The 10 Common Vowels ................................................................................................................... 8 19- The 8 French Specific Vowels ............................................................................................................ 8 20- The 32 Geometric Consonant Letters ............................................................................................... 8 Dr. Eng. Ziad Amer Hammoodi 6 October 2016  {Taha} & {wAw}, The Universal Methods of Writing –   Alphabets Terminology 1 1-   Consonant Letters & Vowels A consonant letter means a sounding letter as the word “son” means sound in French. Consonant does not mean constant or fixed letter and vowel does not mean a moving letter as encountered frequently on the web. Vowels are often used to represent sounds for historical reasons but in reality vowels are movements associated to sounds to describe how these sounds are launched and how long they persist before vanishing. 2-   Dynamic & Static Letters The human speech is expressed in words. Each word is composed of one or more syllable. Syllables are made from dynamic and static consonant letters. These Letters are expressed by different human sounds created inside the mouth or launched outside in different ways. 3-   Static Letters & Static Mark A static letter is a consonant letter made inside the mouth but not launched outside. Arabic static letters are associated with an optional static mark called Sukoon ” . Unmarked Geometric consonant letters not followed by vowels are considered static letters by default. 4-   Dynamic Letters & Movements A dynamic letter is a consonant letter associated with a movement. The consonant letter represents a specific sound made inside the mouth while its associated movement represents the action of launching the sound outside the mouth in a specific direction. 5-   Hard & Soft Consonant letters Consonant letters can be classified into hard and soft letters with heavy and light sounds depending on the manner in which the sound is formed and launched. In general, softer consonant letters come out from the front of mouth with looser cheeks and flatter tongue. In Arabic, there are five soft letters ( ت , ك , د , س , ذ ) {t, k, d, s, dh} and five corresponding hard letters ( ط , ق , ض , ص , ظ ) {T, K, D, S, Dh} as encountered in the following pairs of Arabic words: ( ب بط ) {tab, TAb}, ( ة ة ) {kalb, Kalb}, ( نيد م ) {dayn, Daym}, (   ) {sayf, Sayf} and (  ذ ةظ ){dhanb, Dhab}. In English, the same letter is used to express both the light and the corresponding heavy sound as encountered in the following pairs of English words: (tin, Ton), (care, Car), (dad, Dog), (sin, Sun), (low, Law), (nil, Nile), (me, Mine), (fat, Far).  {Taha} & {wAw}, The Universal Methods of Writing –   Alphabets Terminology 2 6-    Additive Arabic & Latin Letters The Arabs started writing with the 22 Phoenician consonant letters and then added 6 new letters ( غ , ظ , ض , ذ , خ , ث ) by using one additional point to 6 existing letters ( ع , ط , ص , د , ح , ت ). The Romans started writing with 21 Greek letters and then added 5 missing Latin consonant letters (k, g, j, w,   y) after few centuries. In English, 7 Arabic letters (ch, dh, gh, kh, sh, th, th) were added by using additional (h) to 6 existing Latin letters (c, d, g, k, s, t). Additionally, 4 English letters missing in Arabic (g, p, v, ch) are actually added to Geometric letters. 7-   Short & Long Movements The period of time taken for launching a consonant letter in a specific direction, before the sound hearing vanishes, determines if this movement is short or long one. The Arabs identified 3 short movements when launching a consonant letter in three specific directions: up, down and to the front of the mouth (  َ ,   ,   ) and called them Fathah, Kasrah and Dummah respectively. Three corresponding long movements in the same directions were also identified and called   Mad Fath, Mad Kasr and mad Dum. 8-    Aleph & Very long movements The launching of the first Phoenician consonant letter called Aleph from back of the throat can be maintained for longer time by pushing a steady air stream coming from the lungs for keeping the vocal cords vibrating. Aleph, the first Abjad consonant letter, is called Alif or Hamzah in Arabic if it exists at the beginning of a word. But, Alif represents the long vowel (Mad Fath) anywhere else in a word while Hamzah represents the consonant letter. Very long movements can be associated to any consonant letter. However, the sound of that letter will vanish after the time of a long movement and then will be followed by the sound of Aleph for further continuation of the same movement but not the same sound. Try it. The Arabs used the mark of tilde called Maddah associated with long movements to indicate a very long movement in the texts of the holy Quran before a stressed or static letter as in the word ( نّآ ) {DA~llIn} or before the letter Hamzah as in the words ( ءآش ) {shA~x}. Very long movements are also used in singing as in the phrase ( ل ي فوأ ){O~f yA~ lE~l}. 9-    Arabic Vowels & Movements Movements associated with the dynamic consonant letters can be written as marks above or below these letters or as different letters after consonant letters and called vowels.  {Taha} & {wAw}, The Universal Methods of Writing –   Alphabets Terminology 3 In Arabic classic, the three short movements associated with dynamic letters are written as optional marks above or below consonant letters while the three long movements are mandatory and written as vowels ( ّ فور ) after the consonant letters. Three consonant letters called (Alif, Waw, Yaa) were selected to fulfill the role of Arabic vowels. These letters are also used as carriers of Hamzah. The mix-up between vowels and consonant letters is unfortunate and leads to frequent spelling mistakes. However, the mix-up between consonants and vowels is controlled in holy Quran by short movements preceding the vowels as in the word ( َ  ى  ). 10-   English Vowels & Consonants In English, the five letters (a, i, u, e, o) are defined as vowels and play the role of five short Arabic movements and somehow the role of five long movements. The letter (y) is used some times as a vowel in English and often as a vowel in French. Unfortunately, and for historical reasons, the role of Latin consonant letters and vowels was initially mixed up. Due to the fact that the consonant Latin letters (y, w) were absent and introduced two late, the vowels played the role of consonant letters. For example, the two vowels (ou) in the word hour played the role of consonant (w) and the funny letter (i) in the funny word (I) pronounced (Ay) played the role of a hidden consonant letter (Phoenician Aleph) followed by the long movement (A) and the consonant (y). The mix up is found also among vowels as in the two words (all) and (color) where the vowels (a) and (o) play the role of each other and found also among consonant letters as in the words (kilo) and (care) because the letter (k) was introduced too late in Latin alphabet. The word kilo was introduced in French with the Arabic decimal system and spread with it. The word kilo was derived from the Arabic word “kayl” which means “measure”  and the value one thousand was inspired from the last Arabic letter ( غ ) which had the value of one thousand in the old Arabic decimal system when Arabic letters were also used as numerals. The letter (g) was introduced before (j), therefore (ge) was used instead of (j) as in George. The French (j) is normally softer than the Arabic (j). The letter (d) is sometimes added in French as in the Arabic word (Djabal) which means mountain. Currently, one Geometric symbol was used for both Arabic and French (j). However, a French (j) can be created by adding one point to the Arabic (j). Actually, students spend years of learning the spelling and the pronunciation of individual words or groups of words in all languages using Latin letters. Most dictionaries show up pronunciation of individual words using International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
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