The Impact of Protection Interventions on Unaccompanied and Separated Children in Humanitarian Crises | Child Neglect | Violence

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During conflicts and crises, children often face multiple stressors that can have significant impacts on their physical, cognitive, social and emotional development. Because unaccompanied and separated children (UASC) have lost the care and protection of their primary caregivers, they face a heightened risk of abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence (Maestral International, 2011). As a result, programming for UASC cases is often prioritized in the context of humanitarian interventions (Maestral International, 2011
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  systematic review Humanitarian Evidence Programme MARCH 2017 THE IMPACT OF PROTECTION INTERVENTIONS ON UNACCOMPANIED AND SEPARATED CHILDREN IN HUMANITARIAN CRISES  About this systematic review This is an independent systematic review, commissioned by the Humanitarian Evidence Programme   a partnership between Oxfam GB and the Feinstein International Center at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University. It was funded by the United Kingdom (UK) government through the Humanitarian Innovation and Evidence Programme at the Department for International Development. The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Oxfam, Feinstein or the UK government. About the research team This systematic review was conducted by Katharine Williamson, Save the Children UK; Debbie Landis, Save the Children Sweden; Priya Gupta, McMaster University; Harry Shannon, Professor Emeritus, McMaster University; and Leigh-Anne Gillespie, McMaster University. The report’s authors are from Save the Children UK and Sweden, and McMaster University.  Although Save the Children advocates for family-based care in preference to residential care, there are no conflicts of interest among the authors, who remained open to all evidence. Katharine Williamson, the lead author, is Principal Investigator on the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance-funded Measuring Separation in Emergencies Project and on the Steering Committee of the Inter-Agency Child Protection Information Management System. All discussion points, including those related to specific areas of interest, were reviewed by the research team and the Inter-Agency Working Group on Unaccompanied and Separated Children. Searches of bibliographic databases were conducted in December 2015 and January 2016. Searches of potentially relevant websites (including government agencies and non-governmental organizations) were carried out between February 2016 and April 2016. Citation Williamson, K., Gupta, P., Gillespie, L.A., Shannon, H. and Landis, D. (2017). The impact of  protection interventions on unaccompanied and separated children: A systematic review  . Humanitarian Evidence Programme. Oxford: Oxfam GB. Acknowledgments The authors thank members of the Advisory Group of the Inter-Agency Working Group on Unaccompanied and Separated Children, especially Janis Ridsdel, Laura Lungarotti and Frieda Mwebe, who gave their time, thought and contributions to this review. They also thank Maureen Rice at McMaster University for her major contribution to the search for eligible papers. Lastly, they thank the Humanitarian Evidence Programme for funding this project, and Ellie Ott, Roxanne Krystalli and Lisa Walmsley for their advice and ongoing support during the process. Series editors The report forms part of a series of humanitarian evidence syntheses and systematic reviews covering child protection, market support, mental health, nutrition, pastoralist livelihoods, shelter, urban contexts and water, sanitation and hygiene. The reports and corresponding protocols can be found at:    https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs    http://fic.tufts.edu/research-item/the-humanitarian-evidence-program/    http://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/our-work/humanitarian/humanitarian-evidence-programme. The series editors are: Roxanne Krystalli, Eleanor Ott and Lisa Walmsley. Photo credit Za'atari camp, Syria, March 2016. Adeline Guerra/Oxfam.  © Copyright Oxfam GB 2017 This publication is subject to copyright but the text may be used free of charge for the purposes of advocacy, campaigning, education and research, provided that the source is acknowledged in full. The copyright holder requests that all such use be registered with them for impact assessment purposes. For copying in any other circumstances, or for reuse in other publications, or for translation or adaptation, permission must be secured and a fee may be charged. Email: lwalmsley1@ght.oxfam.org.  CONTENTS 0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i   1 BACKGROUND 1   1.1 Description of the problem 1   1.2 Why this review is important 1   1.3 Theoretical frameworks 2   1.4 Description of the interventions of interest 5   1.5 Examples of specific intervention activities 12   1.6 Objectives 14   2 METHODS 15   2.1 Inclusion criteria 15   2.2 Search strategy 16   2.3 Data extraction 17   2.4 Data analysis 18   2.5 Deviations from protocol 18   3 RESULTS 19   3.1 Identification of papers 19   3.2 Profile of papers 20   3.3 Synthesis of data under each domain and sub-domain 26   3.4 Quality assessment of the eligible papers 46   4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 53   4.1 The state of the evidence 53   4.2 Summary of key findings and their implications 55   4.3 What constitutes evidence? 59   5 REFERENCES 60   5.1 papers Included in systematic review 60   5.2 Other studies cited in review 61   APPENDICES 64    Appendix A: Detailed search strategies 64    Appendix B: List of websites searched 70    Appendix C: Data extracted from included papers 72    Appendix D: Risk-of-bias assessment tools 74    Appendix E: Papers excluded during Screen 2 and reasons for exclusion 79    Appendix F: Risk-of-bias/quality assessments 100    Appendix G: Quality assessment of FTR reports 109    ABBREVIATIONS CAAFAG Children associated with armed forces and armed groups CASP Critical Appraisal Skills Programme CI Confidence interval CP Child protection CPWG Child Protection Working Group CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child DCOF Displaced Children and Orphans Fund DNAS National Directorate of Social Action (Mozambique) DRC Democratic Republic of Congo FHI Food for the Hungry International FTR Family tracing and reunification IASC Interagency Standing Committee IAWG Inter-Agency Working Group ICC Interim care centres ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross IDTR Identification, documentation, tracing and reunification LMIC Low and middle-income countries MHPSS Mental health and psychosocial support NGO Non-governmental organization PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder UAM Unaccompanied minor UASC Unaccompanied and separated children UCLA University of California at Los Angeles UK United Kingdom UN United Nations UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees CAAFAG United Nations Children's Fund
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