214065915 Mitigation of Environmental Impacts of Transportation | Climate Change Mitigation

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  Mitigation of Environmental Impacts of Transportation  A well–organized transportation system is essential for economic development and it offers awide range of benefits such as accessibility to goods and services. However it is obvious that it alsocauses serious problems in the form of negative impacts on environment. Motor vehicles and other modes of transportation are significant contributors to air and water pollution not only on a local level aswell as regional and global levels. In addition transportation is a ma!or source of noise and gives riseto other environmental problems such as water pollution and fragmentation of land. hen we say mitigation it means the elimination or reduction of the fre#uency magnitude or severity of e$posure to ris%s or minimization of the potential impact of a threat or warning. Mitigation of environmental impacts of transportation has the ob!ective of reducing the environmental impact of transportation system and ma%ing this sector more sustainable. Mitigation of environmental impactsaims to ma%e decisions that are based on understanding of environmental conse#uences ad ta%eactions that protect restore and enhance the environment. The following are approaches for mitigationof environmental impacts in its correct order&se#uence'(.Mitigation by avoidance – this approach represents cheapest and most effective form of impactmitigation. It measures considering siting design process technology route alternatives and)no go* options to avoid impacts.+.Mitigation b reduction – this approach aims at limiting the severity of impacts and not avoidingthem altogether. ,.Mitigation by remedy – measures underta%en to restore the environment to its previouscondition or to a new e#uilibrium.-.ompensation – this approach opens a window of opportunity for negotiations betweendevelopers and decision/ma%ers.0.Enhancement – applied in parallel with other compensation measures to encourageopportunities to limit the scope and scale of impacts and on improving the environmentalfeatures. 1eferences' http'&&www.twoeam/eu.net&handboo%&20.pdf http'&&environment.fhwa.dot.gov&pro!dev&tdmmitig+.asphttp'&&www.lumes.lu.se&database&alumni&2,.2-&theses&anderson3!it%a.pdf   4roblems and Issues on 4hilippine Transportation 5ystem According to a blogger http'&&getrealphilippines.com the following are the fundamental roadbloc%sto improving 4hilippine public transport' (.6elegation of mass transit capability to private enterprise - It is considered as the most fundamental problem with the way public transport is beingmanaged in the 4hilippines. 7uses and !eepneys which are the basic mode of transportation wor% under the )boundary* system. 8ehicles are leased to drivers whoagree to pay a fi$ed minimum daily fee to the lessor. 9ther than this the government donot have regulations on the number of operators authorized to ply on the routes. Andeven that is sub!ect to abuse and mismanagement as it seems many of these routeshave been over/subscribed way beyond their capacities to accommodate transportsectors.+.Aversion to wal%ing - 6ue to the tropical climate :ilipinos does not prefer to wal% which gives an avenue totricycles and pedicabs to have a mar%et on transportation thus adding to the congestion. Add to this is the unfriendly streets open sewers vendors etc.,.5tunted ethnic wor% schedules -  :ilipinos want their transport service serving them door – to – door any minute of theday. However not everyone could afford to ta%e ta$i cabs so they rely on cheaper transport. A scheduled limited/route mass transport service will be unable to competewith personalize and e$tremely fle$ible service available.  9n the other hand the Asian 6evelopment 7an% addresses three core issues within the ttransport sector' ã Enhancement of transport efficiency ã 6evelopment of urban transport ã 5ustainability of the transport system in terms of the physical sustainability of assetsthe social sustainability of operations in relation to safety and security and itsenvironmental sustainability.To address the three core issues the strategy supports four %ey areas of intervention' ã Improvement of national highways ã 6evelopment of urban transport ã 5trengthening of sector governance ã :acilitation of private sector infrastructure development and regional operations.1eferences'http'&&www.adb.org&documents&philippines/transport/sector/assessment/strategy/and/road/maphttp'&&getrealphilippines.com&blog&+2((&2-&three/fundamental/roadbloc%s/to/improving/philippine/public/transport& ;eading ountries in Terms of Transportation 5ystem (2. 6enmar%6enmar% has a well/developed and generally environmentally friendly transport system. Thetransport system has been improved in several areas including public transport integration of thedifferent modes of transport and new technologies li%e electric vehicles and modular vehiclecombinations. In 6enmar% many individuals rely on the bi%e as their primary means of transportation.Initiatives that improve the facilities for cyclists are therefore of priority. They have an urban bi%eprogram that allows people to use a #uarter to unloc% a par%ed bi%e then go for a ride and par% it inanother zone across town. The openhagen Metro which is the main transit system of 6enmar% is lin%ed by anther trainsystem that connects people to the suburbs and outside regions of 6enmar%. The trains use an Automated Train 5ystem <AT5= that runs the train networ% through a computer which increases bothefficiency and safety.  Higher mobility and accessibility are important in 6enmar%. Thus efforts are focused onstrengthening the lin%s between different modes of transport and integrating these to a higher e$tentthan today. The 6anish >overnment wants to invest +&, of the funds for infrastructure in greener transport choices such as public transport light rails and the use of bi%es. ?. >ermany Although the >erman transportation networ% was heavily damaged during orld ar II the>erman transport system is now one of the best in Europe. In +22+ the railroad system consisted of --222 %m of operational trac% oth the greater part erated by the government/owned :ederal 1ailways5ystem. >ermany had @+0 airports in +22( which includes :ran%furt International Airport that is %nownas one of the top ten airports. It is the airport with the largest number of international destiations servedworldwide. The /7ahn is an underground networ% that covers (,+ %m of the city. This lin%s to the 5/7ahnthe above ground train networ% that lin%s to other transportation routes throughout the city. B. Hong Cong Appro$imately ?2D of all travel in Hong Cong is done via the Mass Transit 1ailway <MT1= a%athe Hong Cong subway. The system ta%es million riders a day through (0%m long networ% withtrains that are %nown to run on time. MT1 also offers ,> networ% coverage for phones and computers.The Hong Cong Airport E$press is the high/speed train that will ta%e you from the HC Airport to entral5tation. Hong Cong buses are double/dec%er !ust li%e 5ingapore and C. Hong Cong also hasTramways and 4ea% tram which carries both tourists and residents to the upper levels of Hong Cong.. nited 5tates of AmericaTransportation in the nited 5tates is facilitated by road air rail and water networ%s. The vastma!ority of passenger travel occurs by automobile for shorter distances and airplane or railroad for some people for longer distances. In descending order most cargoes travel by railroad truc% pipelineor boatF air shipping is typically used only for perishables and premium e$press shipments. The Gew or% 5ubway system offers ,0 %m of coverage across the city e$press services thatrun on separate trac%s from local trains and it runs +-/hour a day every day of the year. The nited 5tates also has advanced air transportation infrastructure. The Atlanta International Airport is the worlds busiest in terms of passengers and the Memphis International Airport is the worldsbusiest in terms of cargo.@.:ranceThe :rench transportation system is one of the best in estern Europe. It has developedEuropes fastest passenger train the high/speed J >rande 8itesse which began to operate in (?B(. In(??- the English hannel Tunnel or )hunnel* was completed and it established the first direct rail lin%between :rance and >reat 7ritain. The 1E1  ( 1Kseau E$press 1Kgional= is a rapid transit system in:rance. 1E1 acts as an underground or subway train within 4aris. 5hippers also use the internal waterways of the country particularly for low/cost bul%y andheavy goods. The ton/miles carried by canal and river barges amount to +2D of the total for rail freight.The three principal waterways deep enough to accommodate the (022/ton barges common in Europeare the 1hine 1iver the 5eine between ;e Havre and 4aris and the canalized section of the Moselle1iver below Metz. A lthough the :rench are avid motorists :rance was slow to build modern superhighways. Thiswas because the relatively thinly populated country had a good e$isting networ% of older main roads. In
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