4Canal Excavation | Explosive Material | Excavation (Archaeology)

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  SECTION IVCANAL EXCAVATION401 SCOPE The work under this Section shall consist of excavating and removal of all classes of materials in canal prism including placing into canal embankments with excavatedsuitable materials, stockpiling of excavated materials suitable for embankment and backfilling, and trimming of side slopes inside canal prism and canal beds except on portion of the canal where concrete lining is required (trimming of the foundation bed will be considered included under Section XX, Concrete Canal Lining all in accordance withthe !rawings and these Specifications or as directed b the #ngineer$%ll excavations shall be true to lines, grades, slopes and profiles shown on the!rawings or as required b the #ngineer$ 402 CLASSIFICATION  %ll excavated materials under this Section will be classified as follows& '$ Rock Excavation   )or purposes of classification of excavation, rock is definedas sound and solid masses or formation, la ers or ledges of mineral matter in place of suchhardness and texture that& a Cannot be effectivel loosened or broken down b ripping in a single pass witha latest model tractor mounted h draulic ripper equipped with one digging point of standard manufacturer*s design adequatel si+ed for use with and propelled b a crawlert pe tractor above -- ./$ b 0n the areas where it is impracticable to classif the use of the ripper describedabove, rock is defined as sound and solid material of such hardness and texturewhich cannot be loosened or broken b a 1$21 kg$ (3 pound drifting pick$c Can onl be loosened or broken b a special equipment such as 4ack hammer and pencil hammer attached to an excavator$%ll formation of materials as defined above whose volume is one (' cubic meter or more will be classified as rock$1$ Common Excavation   #xcavation of an materials and boulders (whosevolume is less than one cubic meter that can be ripped to be loosened b , a do+er of equal or below '5- ./ capacit $ $ Har Excavation   #xcavation of an materials and boulders (whose volume isat least one cubic meter that can onl be ripped to be loosened b a do+er of above '5-./ to -- ./$TS06'  Canal #xcavation 40! CONSTR CTION RE# IRE$ENTS  (a Ex%&o'iv(' an )&a'tin*  '  Explosives Caps or other exploders or fuses shall in no case be stored in the same place in which d namite or other explosives are stored, transported or kept$The location and design of powder maga+ines, the methods of transportingexplosives and the precautions taken to prevent accidents shall be in accordancewith the provisions of all laws, orders, regulations and decrees that are in forcein the /hilippines or ma be issued from time to time b the 7overnment$The Contractor shall maintain an inventor for storage and withdrawalof powder stocks and detonators$ The 80% shall be notified immediatel of an loss or theft of explosives$ The Contractor shall provide such reasonable andadequate protective subversive action or sabotage to an propert $ 9nl reliable personnel shall be permitted to store and handle explosives$#xplosives, if used, shall be of such quantit and power and shall beused in such locations so as to minimi+e opening of seams and disturbing of material outside the prescribed limits of excavation$ %s excavation approachesits final limits, the depth of holes for blasting and the quantit of explosives usedfor each hole shall be reduced so that the underl ing or ad4acent material willnot be disturbed or shattered$ :henever further blasting might in4ure thesurface of the final excavation, as determined b the #ngineer, the use of explosives shall be discontinued$ The cost of furnishing, hauling, storing and handling all explosives shall be included in the contract unit price of the work for which the are required$1  Blasting  ;lasting will be permitted onl when proper precautions are taken for the protection of persons, the works, and public or private propert $ The Contractor shall satisfactoril cover all shots in deep cut excavations and shall takeextra precautions on all blasting work as ma be required b the 80%$ The Contractor shall blast to the extent necessar and in such a manner that theexcavation will not be undul large or irregular, nor undul disturb the groundand make it unstable, nor shatter the rock, if encountered, upon or againstwhich concrete is to be placed, nor in4ure concrete alread placed or existingstructures at the site or in the vicinit thereof$ :henever, in 80%*s opinion, theContractor*s operations are liable to result in undul large excavations or unstable ground, as to in4ure the rock, concrete or structures, the Contractor shall drill shorter holes and use lighter charges$ %pproval b the 80% of an of the Contractor*s blasting operations shall not relieve the Contractor of hisresponsibilit under this paragraph$TS061  Canal #xcavation The Contractor shall submit his drilling and blasting operations for approval of the #ngineer before commencing with his blasting works$ 8o blasting operations shall be undertaken without the approval of the #ngineer$ :hen concrete is to be placed upon or against rock, the excavationshall be of sufficient depth to provide for the minimum thickness of concrete atall points and an deviation from the required minimum thickness of concreteshall be avoided as much as possible$ The surface on which concrete will be laidshall be trimmed and thoroughl cleaned as directed b the #ngineer$ :hen excavation of rock materials reaches the surface upon or againstwhich concrete is to be placed, blasting shall be stopped and the remaining massof rock shall be carefull removed b means of 4ackhammer or an appropriatehand tool$ The point be ond which blasting will not be allowed shall bedetermined b the #ngineer$ %ll damages to the rock foundation caused b improper blasting operation shall be repaired b the Contractor at his ownexpense in a manner acceptable to the #ngineer$ (b S(ction' an S&o%(' #xcavation sections, profiles and slopes shall be cut true and straight in conformit with the lines and grades shown on the !rawings within the following tolerances,measured normal to the excavated surfaces& 0tem Tolerances'$ Side slopes above minimum elevation < - cms$ of operating roads1$ /rofile of operating roads, access < = cms$ roads and protection dike$ /rofile of invert of canals <  cms$>$ Side slopes inside canal prism for < '? cms$ canals and laterals?$ Side slopes outside canal prism < '? cms$ for canals and lateralsThe extreme of the above tolerances shall not be continuous over a distance of >-meters measured at an place, in an direction, parallel to the excavated surface$(c Excavation )(+on E'ta,&i'-( Lin(' /recautions shall be taken to preserve, in an undisturbed condition, materials be ond the designated limits of excavations as shown on the !rawings except unsuitableTS06  Canal #xcavationmaterials ordered removed b the #ngineer$ @aterials loosened be ond the excavationlimits as a result of excavation operations shall be considered defective work and shall becompacted or removed and replaced with compacted embankment at the Contractor*sexpense, as directed b the #ngineer$ 404 $ETHO. OF CONSTR CTION Canal excavation shall include all excavation works in the canal prism whether common, indurated or rock materials, except additional excavations at structure siteswhich is specified to be done and measured for pa ment under excavation for structure$The Contractor shall onl excavate after the area of operation is acceptabl clearedand grubbed in accordance with Section 00, AClearing and 7rubbingA$ #xcavation of allcanals shall be in accordance with the cross section, lines and grades shown on the!rawings$ 9n portion of the canal where concrete lining is required, canal excavationshall not extend be ond the neat lines of the underside face of the canal lining as shown onthe !rawings$ The Contractor must exercise care not to extend his excavation be ond thelimits called for in the !rawings$ #xcavation operations shall be such that all materialssuitable for embankment or back filling and filling shall be separated from ob4ectionablematerials which are to be wasted$ %ll surfaces from excavation shall be trimmed to therequired slopes and grades within the specified tolerances under paragraph >- (b$;lasting if permitted b the 80%, shall be in accordance with paragraph >- (a,A#xplosives and ;lastingA$0n sections of deep cut in which the canal section is continuous with the roadwa section and its side slopes, excavation for roadwa shall be included under this Section$ 0f slides occur on excavated slopes or if runoff flows deposit additional materials inexcavations before acceptance of the works, the removal of said slides andBor depositsshall be at the expense of the Contractor$Large canals like main canals should preferabl be excavated with the use of motori+ed scrapers, excavating in successive la ers of about - centimeters followedsubsequentl b trimming of the side slopes using a 7rader$ @edium si+ed canals likelaterals should preferabl be excavated b initiall using a !3 or !2 ;ulldo+er for theupper la ers and then excavating the bottom la ers and side slopes with the use of a;ackhoe$ Should the Contractor proposes to do excavation works b some other means, prior approval of the #ngineer must be secured$ 40/ FINISHIN CANAL AN. ROA.AS pon completion of all construction operations, the canal section, including slopesof canal embankments, and roadwa embankments, shall be finished as specified andshown on the !rawings$ Canal beds, canal embankments and side slopes shall be trimmedand shaped to the finished crosssection to produce smooth surfaces and slopes, anduniform crosssections$TS06>
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