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Clinical abstract – reference list. Clinical Research Update Double X 1. Foerster, S. B., Kizer, K. W., Disogra, L. K., Bal, D. G., Krieg, B. F., and Bunch, K. L. California’s “5 a day--for better health!” campaign: an innovative population-based effor
  Clinical Research Update Double X Effects of Daily Multi-Supplementationon Nutrient Status and Risk Factors inHealthy Adults Investigators: Teresa Sligh, M.D. and Kenneth Sall, M.D.Providence Clinical Research and Sall Research Medical Center Clinical abstract – reference list. 1.Foerster, S. B., Kizer, K. W., Disogra, L. K., Bal, D. G., Krieg, B. F., and Bunch, K. L. California’s “5 a day--forbetter health!” campaign: an innovative population-based effort to effect large-scale dietary change. Am JPrev Med 1995 Mar-Apr; 11 (2): 124-31.2.Kant, A. K., Schatzkin, A., Graubard, B. I., and Schairer, C. A prospective study of diet quality and mortalityin women. JAMA 2000 Apr 26; 283 (16): 2109-15.3.Fairfi eld, K. M. and Fletcher, R. H. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: Scientifi c Review.JAMA 2002 Jun 19; 287 (23): 3116-26.4.Fletcher, R. H. and Fairfi eld, K. M. Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults: Clinical Applications.JAMA 2002 Jun 19; 287 (23): 3127-9.5.Nijveldt, R. J., van Nood, E., van Hoorn, D. E., Boelens, P. G., van Norren, K., and van Leeuwen, P. A.Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Oct;74 (4): 418-25.6.Raskin, I., Ribnicky, D. M., Komarnytsky, S., Ilic, N., Poulev, A., Borisjuk, N., Brinker, A., Moreno, D. A.,Ripoll, C., Yakoby, N., O’Neal, J. M., Cornwell, T., Pastor, I., and Fridlender, B. Plants and human health inthe twentyfirst century. Trends Biotechnol 2002 Dec; 20 (12): 522-31.7.Hennekens, C. H., Gaziano, J. M., Manson, J. E., and Buring, J. E. Antioxidant vitamin-cardiovascular dis-ease hypothesis is still promising, but still unproven: the need for randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr 1995Dec; 62 (6 Suppl):1377S-1380S.8.Parnetti, L., Bottiglieri, T., and Lowenthal, D. Role of homocysteine in age-related vascular and non-vasculardiseases. Aging (Milano) 1997 Aug; 9 (4): 241-57.9.Stanger, O., Herrmann, W., Pietrzik, K., Fowler, B., Geisel, J., Dierkes, J., and Weger, M. DACH-LIGA homocysteine (German, Austrian, and Swiss homocysteine society): consensus paper on the rational clinicaluse of homocysteine, folic acid and B-vitamins in cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases: Guidelines andRecommendations. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003 Nov; 41 (11): 1392-403.10.Mattson, M. P., Kruman, I. I., and Duan, W. Folic acid and homocysteine in age-related disease. Aging ResRev 2002 Feb; 1 (1) :95-111.11.Bendich, A. From 1989 to 2001: what have we learned about the “biological actions of beta-carotene”? JNutr 2004 Jan; 134 (1): 225S-230S.12. Brigelius-Flohe, R. and Traber, M. G. Vitamin E: function and metabolism. FASEB J 1999 Jul; 13 (10): 1145-55.  Clinical abstract. Most people do not eat enough fruits and vegetables and thus have less thanoptimal levels of the vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals that have been asso-ciated with healthy longevity. 1-2 Because of this, medical, authorities recommendthat all healthy adults consume a daily serving of a multivitamin. 3-6 However, moreresearch is needed to verify whether findings from test tube or population studiesalso apply to people actually consuming a given multisupplement as intended –information that can only be gathered by means of clinical trials. 7 The challenge of clinical research on dietary supplements is there’s no disease to treat, cure, or prevent: How canone hope to find an improvement if everybody’s already healthy to begin with? But health now, of course, doesn’tnecessarily reflect health in the future. Between any two people of apparently equivalent good health, there may beunsuspected differences in risk factors.With this background, the DOUBLE X ® 2005 reformulation study was designed to test the benefits of consumingthe recommended daily serving of DOUBLE X on two levels: first, by analyzing the levels in the bloodstream of thehealth-promoting nutrients contained in DOUBLE X; second, by analyzing the levels of selected risk factors.For this Independent Review Board-approved study, 120 healthy men and women were recruited, gave their writ-ten informed consent to participate in the clinical trial, and had a medical exam by the physician PrincipalInvestigator. All subjects then gave blood samples before and after consuming either DOUBLE X or placebo (threetablets, twice a day) for six weeks. At week six, these samples were analyzed for nutrients and risk factors.In the realm of nutrient levels, as expected, plasma levels of vitamins B6, B12, and folate increased significantly inthe DOUBLE X group but showed no change in the placebo group. These three nutrients areimportant factors inthe recycling of homocysteine, a harmful by-product of protein metabolism. 8-10 Beta-carotene, which can be converted to vitamin A in the body, 11 and vitamin E, another important antioxidant, 12 wereboth also significantly increased in the DOUBLE X ® group but not in the placebo group. In the realm of riskfactors, homocysteine reduced to a large extent in the DOUBLE X group relative to the placebo group.Homocysteine is the by-product of protein metabolism via methionine; it is known to induce DNA strand breakage,oxidative stress, and apoptosis (cell death). Insufficient recycling of homocysteine into cysteine by B6 or back intomethionine by folic acid and B6 leads to elevated plasma homocysteine levels and increased risk for age-relatedhealth issues. Last in this list of positive outcomes from this study, but perhaps first in importance, the Micronucleus Assay, ameasureof DNA damage in dividing cells, showed significantly reduced DNA damage in subjects who had consumedDOUBLE X for six weeks, but no significant change in subjects who had consumed placebo. DNA damage, as indi-cated by the Micronucleus Assay, is believed to be a sensitive early marker of risk of chronic health conditions. This controlled clinical study thus demonstrates beneficial nutrients in DOUBLE X areabsorbed by the body,andthat functional benefits – in lowered homocysteine levels, and protected DNA – are detectable in healthy adults,which suggests that DOUBLE X helps maintain healthy aging.
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