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  2/3/2017 Gmail - IELTS Materials and Resources, Get IELTS Tips, Tricks & Practice Test 1/8 Zaenul Wafa <> IELTS Materials and Resources, Get IELTS Tips, Tricks & Practice Test IELTS Reading Recent Actual Test 21 in 2017 with Answer Key Posted: 27 Feb 2017 11:00 PM PST SECTION 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 on the following pages. The Impact of the PotatoJeff Chapman relates the story of history the most important vegetable  A The potato was first cultivated in South America between three and seven thousand years ago, though scientistsbelieve they may have grown wild in the region as long as 13,000 years ago. The genetic patterns of potato distributionindicate that the potato probably srcinated in the mountainous west-central region of the continent.B Early Spanish chroniclers who misused the Indian word batata (sweet potato) as the name for the potato noted theimportance of the tuber to the Incan Empire. The Incas had learned to preserve the potato for storage by dehydrating andmashing potatoes into a substance called Chuchu could be stored in a room for up to 10 years, providing excellentinsurance against possible crop failures. As well as using the food as a staple crop, the Incas thought potatoes madechildbirth easier and used it to treat injuries.C The Spanish conquistadors first encountered the potato when they arrived in Peru in 1532 in search of gold, and notedInca miners eating chuchu. At the time the Spaniards failed to realize that the potato represented a far more importanttreasure than either silver or gold, but they did gradually begin to use potatoes as basic rations aboard their ships. After the arrival of the potato in Spain in 1570 , a few Spanish farmers began to cultivate them on a small scale, mostly asfood for livestock.D Throughout Europe, potatoes were regarded with suspicion, distaste and fear. Generally considered to be unfit for human consumption, they were used only as animal fodder and sustenance for the starving. In northern Europe, potatoeswere primarily grown in botanical gardens as an exotic novelty. Even peasants refused to eat from a plant that producedugly, misshapen tubers and that had come from a heathen civilization. Some felt that the potato plant’s resemblance toplants in the nightshade family hinted that it was the creation of witches or devils.E In meat-loving England, farmers and urban workers regarded potatoes with extreme distaste. In 1662, the RoyalSociety recommended the cultivation of the tuber to the English government and the nation, but this recommendationhad little impact. Potatoes did not become a staple until, during the food shortages associated with the RevolutionaryWars, the English government began to officially encourage potato cultivation. In 1795, the Board of Agriculture issued apamphlet entitled “Hints Respecting the Culture and Use of Potatoes” ;  this was followed shortly by pro-potato editorialsand potato recipes in The Times. Gradually, the lower classes began to follow the lead of the upper classes.F A similar pattern emerged across the English Channel in the Netherlands, Belgium and France. While the potatoslowly gained ground in eastern France (where it was often the only crop remaining after marauding soldiers plunderedwheat fields and vineyards), it did not achieve widespread acceptance until the late 1700s. The peasants remainedsuspicious, in spite of a 1771 paper from the Facult de Paris testifying that the potato was not harmful but beneficial. Thepeople began to overcome their distaste when the plant received the royal seal of approval: Louis XVI began to sport apotato flower in his buttonhole, and Marie-Antoinette wore the purple potato blossom in her hair.G Frederick the Great of Prussia saw the potato’s potential to help feed his nation and lower the price of bread, but facedthe challenge of overcoming the people’s prejudice against the plant. When he issued a 1774 order for his subjects togrow potatoes as protection against famine, the town of Kolberg replied: “The things have neither smell nor taste, noteven the dogs will eat them, so what use are they to us?” Trying a less direct approach to encourage his subjects to IELTS Materials and Resources, Get IELTS Tips, Tricks & Practice Test    2/3/2017 Gmail - IELTS Materials and Resources, Get IELTS Tips, Tricks & Practice Test 2/8 begin planting potatoes, Frederick used a bit of reverse psychology: he planted a royal field of potato plants andstationed a heavy guard to protect this field from thieves. Nearby peasants naturally assumed that anything worthguarding was worth stealing, and so snuck into the field and snatched the plants for their home gardens. Of course, thiswas entirely in line with Frederick’s wishes.H Historians debate whether the potato was primarily a cause or an effect of the huge population boom in industrial-eraEngland and Wales. Prior to 1800 , the English diet had consisted primarily of meat, supplemented by bread, butter andcheese. Few vegetables were consumed, most vegetables being regarded as nutritionally worthless and potentiallyharmful. This view began to change gradually in the late 1700s. The Industrial Revolution was drawing an ever increasingpercentage of the populace into crowded cities, where only the richest could afford homes with ovens or coal storagerooms, and people were working 12-16 hour days which left them with little time or energy to prepare food. High yielding,easily prepared potato crops were the obvious solution to England’s food problems.I Whereas most of their neighbors regarded the potato with suspicion and had to be persuaded to use it by the upper classes, the Irish peasantry embraced the tuber more passionately than anyone since the Incas. The potato was wellsuited to the Irish the soil and climate, and its high yield suited the most important concern of most Irish farmers: to feedtheir families.J The most dramatic example of the potato’s potential to alter population patterns occurred in Ireland, where the potatohad become a staple by 1800. The Irish population doubled to eight million between 1780 and 1841 , this without anysignificant expansion of industry or reform of agricultural techniques beyond the widespread cultivation of the potato.Though Irish landholding practices were primitive in comparison with those of England, the potato’s high yields allowedeven the poorest farmers to produce more healthy food than they needed with scarcely any investment or hard labor.Even children could easily plant, harvest and cook potatoes, which of course required no threshing, curing or grinding.The abundance provided by potatoes greatly decreased infant mortality and encouraged early marriage. Questions 1-5 Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, writeYES if the statement is trueNO if the statement is falseNOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage   1. The early Spanish called potato as the Incan name ‘Chuchu , .2. The purposes of Spanish coming to Peru were to find out potatoes.3. The Spanish believed that the potato has the same nutrients as other vegetables.4. Peasants at that time did not like to eat potatoes because they were ugly.5. The popularity of potatoes in the UK was due to food shortages during the war. Questions 6-13 Complete the sentences below with NO MORE THAN ONE WORD AND from the passage 1 for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 6-13 on your answer sheet.6. In France  ,  people started to overcome their disgusting about potatoes because the King put a potato ___________________ in his button hole.7. Frederick realized the potential of potato but he had to handle the ______________________ against potatoes fromordinary people.8. The King of Prussia adopted some _________________________ psychology to make people accept potatoes.9. Before 1800 , the English people preferred eating _____________________________ with bread, butter and cheese.10. The obvious way to deal with England food problems were high yielding potato ______________________ 11. The Irish _____________________________and climate suited potatoes well.12. Between 1780 and 1841 , based on the ___________________________ of the potatoes, the  2/3/2017 Gmail - IELTS Materials and Resources, Get IELTS Tips, Tricks & Practice Test 3/8 Irish population doubled to eight million.13. The potato’s high yields help the poorest farmers to produce more healthy food almost without _____________________  SECTION 2 Can we call it “Art”? (2)Life-Casting and Art Julian Bames explores the questions posed by Life-Casts, an exhibition of plaster moulds of living people and objectswhich were srcinally used for scientific purposes A Art changes over time and our idea of what art is changes too. For example, objects srcinally intended for devotional,ritualistic or re-creational purposes may be recategorised as art by members of other later civilisations, such as our own,which no longer respond to these purposes.B What also happens is that techniques and crafts which would have been judged inartistic at the time they were usedare reassessed. Life-casting is an interesting example of this. It involved making a plaster mould of a living person or thing. This was complex, technical work, as Benjamin Robert Haydon discovered when he poured 250 litres of plaster over his human model and nearly killed him. At the time, the casts were used for medical research and, consequently, inthe nineteenth century life-casting was considered inferior to sculpture in the same way that, more recently, photographywas thought to be a lesser art than painting. Both were viewed as unacceptable shortcuts by the ’senior 1 arts. Their virtues of speed and unwavering realism also implied their limitations; they left little or no room for the imagination.C For many, life-casting was an insult to the sculptor’s creative genius. In an infamous lawsuit of 1834, a moulder whosemask of the dying French emperor Napoleon had been reproduced and sold without his permission was judged to haveno rights to the image. In other words, he was specifically held not to be an artist. This judgement reflect the view of established members of the nineteenth-century art world such as Rodin, who commented that life-casting ‘happens fastbut it doesn’t make Art’. Some even feared that ‘if too much nature was allowed in, it would lead Art away from its proper course of the Ideal.D The painter Gauguin, at the end of the nineteenth century, worried about future developments in photography. If ever the process went into colour, what painter would labour away at a likeness with a brush made from squirrel-tail? Butpainting has proved robust. Photography has changed it, of course, just as the novel had to reassess narrative after thearrival of the cinema. But the gap between the senior and junior arts was always narrower than the traditionalists implied.Painters have always used technical back-up such as studio assistants to do the boring bits, while apparently lesser crafts involve great skill, thought, preparation and, depending on how we define it ,  imagination.E Time changes our view in another way, too. Each new movement implies a reassessment of what has gone before.What is done now alters what was done before. In some cases this is merely self-serving, with the new art using the oldto justify itself. It seems to be saying, look at how all of that points to this! Aren’t we clever to be the culmination of allthat has gone before? But usually it is a matter of re-alerting the sensibility, reminding us not to take things for granted.Take, for example, the cast of the hand of a giant from a circus, made by an anonymous artist around 1889, an item thatwould now sit happily in any commercial or public gallery. The most significant impact of this piece is on the eye, in thecontradiction between unexpected size and verisimilitude. Next, the human element kicks in. you note that the nails aredirt-encrusted, unless this is the caster’s decorative addition, and the fingertips extend far beyond them. Then you takein the element of choice, arrangement, art if you like, in the neat, pleated, buttoned sleeve-end that gives the itembalance and variation of texture. This is just a moulded hand, yet the part stands utterly for the whole. It reminds usslyly, poignantly, of the full-size srcinalF But is it art? And, if so, why? These are old tediously repeated questions to which artists have often responded, ‘It isart because I am an artist and therefore what I do is art. However, what doesn’t work for literature works much better for art – works of art do float free of their creators’ intentions. Over time the “reader” does become more powerful. Few of uscan look at a medieval altarpiece as its painter intended. We believe too little and aesthetically know too much, so werecreate and find new fields of pleasure in the work. Equally, the lack of artistic intention of Paul Richer and other forgotten craftsmen who brushed oil onto flesh, who moulded, cast and decorated in the nineteenth century is nowirrelevant. What counts is the surviving object and our response to it. The tests are simple: does it interest the eye,excite the brain, move the mind to reflection and involve the heart. It may, to use the old dichotomy, be beautiful but it israrely true to any significant depth. One of the constant pleasures of art is its ability to come at us from an unexpectedangle and stop us short in wonder. Questions 14-18 Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.  2/3/2017 Gmail - IELTS Materials and Resources, Get IELTS Tips, Tricks & Practice Test 4/8 Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.14. an example of a craftsman’s unsuccessful claim to ownership of his work15. an example of how trends in art can change attitudes to an earlier work16. the srcinal function of a particular type of art17. ways of assessing whether or not an object is art18. how artists deal with the less interesting aspects of their work Questions 19-24 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 19-24 on your answer sheet, writeYES if the statement is trueNO if the statement is falseNOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage19. Nineteenth-century sculptors admired the speed and realism of life-casting.20. Rodin believed the quality of the life-casting would improve if a slower process were used.21. The importance of painting has decreased with the development of colour photography.22. Life-casting requires more skill than sculpture does.23. New art encourages us to look at earlier work in a fresh way.24. The intended meaning of a work of art can get lost over time. Questions 25-26 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.Write the correct letter in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.25. The most noticeable contrast in the cast of the gianfs hand is between the A dirt and decorationB size and realismC choice and arrangementD balance and texture26. According to the writer, the importance of any artistic object lies in A the artist’s intentionsB the artist’s beliefsC the relevance it has to modem lifeD the way we respond to it SECTION 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 , which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Honey bees in troubleCan native pollinators fill the gap?
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