Light. And. Optics. Science 8 Work booklet for Unit 3

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Light And Optics Science 8 Work booklet for Unit 3 TOPIC 1 VOCABULARY CHECK Create Your Own Glossary I Goal To reinforce students understanding of the key terms in Topics 1-3 by creating a mini-glossary
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Light And Optics Science 8 Work booklet for Unit 3 TOPIC 1 VOCABULARY CHECK Create Your Own Glossary I Goal To reinforce students understanding of the key terms in Topics 1-3 by creating a mini-glossary BLM 3-1 Fill in the blanks below with the definition of each key term Also include the page number where the term appears Use the blank spaces provided at the end of the chart to insert other terms from the Topics you might find helpful Place this mini-glossary in your notebook, at the beginning of the Light and Optical Systems unit for your reference Term Page Definition absorption Angle of incidence (i) Angle of reflection (r) Angle of refraction (R) Artificial light source Bioluminescence Chemiluminescence Concave Convex Fluorescence Image Incandescence Incandescent source Incident ray Intensity Law of reflection Light Luminous Natural light source Non-luminous normal Nuclear fusion opaque Phosphorescence Plane Radiant energy TOPIC 1 VOCABULARY CHECK Radiates Radiation Ray Ray diagram Ray model Reflected ray Reflection Refraction Translucent transparent Virtual image Create Your Own Glossary I (continued) BLM 3-1 DATE: NAME: CLASS: TOPIC 1 REINFORCEMENT What is Light? Goal Review terms introduced in Topic 1 BLM 3-2 Use the terms at the beginning of each section to complete the sentences that follow Fluorescence efficient electrical expensive fluorescent hot incandescent phosphor poisonous ultraviolet vapour visible 1 The long tubes in overhead lights and the tubes that spell the names of stores and restaurants are examples of light sources They do not work the same way as bulbs, which have filaments that heat up and glow 2 In fluorescent bulbs, energy is absorbed by the particles of mercury inside the tube These particles give off light (a type of light you cannot see), which hits the white powder on the inside of the bulb The phosphor particles give off light 3 A disadvantage of these bulbs is that they are, so their contents are An advantage of these bulbs is that they are energy because they do not get Phosphorescence delay energy glows light 4 Phosphorescence is similar to fluorescence, except the particles that absorb the do not release it immediately There is a An example is a toy ball that after you hold it near a bright for a while Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence artificial chemical light living 5 Electrical and solar energy are used to make incandescent or fluorescent light Energy released in reactions provides the energy for chemiluminescence and bioluminescence Chemiluminescence refers to light produced this way Bioluminescence refers to the produced by organisms DATE: NAME: CLASS: TOPIC 1 PROBLEM SOLVING Turn Off That Light! BLM 3-3 Goal Calculate the cost of electricity Think About It Have you ever been told to turn off the lights in your room when you leave? This is because energy costs money We have to pay for the gasoline needed to drive a car, and for the electricity used by our lights and appliances The cost of electricity varies In rural areas, electricity often costs more than it does in cities because the electric companies have to use longer wires to service fewer people Businesses, industries, and homes are charged different rates How much do you think it costs to use electricity? Complete this worksheet to find out Answer the following questions in the space provided Assume that electricity costs 8 /kw h This means that if a 1000 W appliance is left on for 1 h, it uses 8 worth of electricity Cost = number of kilowatts x number of hours x 8 = number of watts 1000 x number of hours x 8 1 What is the cost of electricity in each situation? Show your work (a) A 100 W light bulb is left on from 10:00 at night to 7:00 the next morning (b) A turkey takes 3 h to cook in a 1500 W oven (c) You watch a 500 W television set for 7 h Going Further 1 Lee s family has a summer cottage that they usually close up for the winter One year, they closed up the cottage on October 8 When they returned the next year, on May 22, they discovered that they had left a 1 kw heater on Assuming that the heater ran about half the time, approximately how much did this little mistake add to their electricity bill? TOPIC 2 REINFORCEMENT What You See Is What You Get Goal Reinforce your understanding of the principles of reflection BLM Use a ruler to draw the reflected images of the objects below 2 Were there any differences between the object and its image in the plane mirror? Describe any differences, with respect to (a) size (b) distance from the mirror (c) orientation DATE: NAME: CLASS: TOPIC 2 PROBLEM SOLVING Mirror Images BLM 3-7 Goal Decipher reflected images to review the laws of reflection Use a mirror to read the three messages below Then answer the following questions 1 Which of these messages is a true reflection in a plane mirror? 2 How were the other messages made? 3 What capital letters look the same in the mirror? TOPIC 2 REINFORCEMENT Different Mirror Surfaces BLM 3-9 Goal Reinforce your understanding of the kinds of mirrors used for different purposes Identify the type of mirror (plane, convex, or concave) used in each situation below Write your answer on the line provided 1 bathroom wall mirror 5 car headlights and flashlights Purpose: to show your exact appearance Type of mirror: 2 store surveillance mirror Purpose: to project a strong beam forward Type of mirror: 6 cosmetic mirror Purpose: to show a wide view Type of mirror: 3 one-way mirror Purpose: to show a magnified view of parts of your face Type of mirror: 7 car mirror Purpose: to see into a brightly lit room; looks like a mirror to the people being observed Type of mirror: 4 dental mirror Purpose: to show a wide-angle view behind and beside the car Type of mirror: 8 reflecting ball at a dance Purpose: to make teeth visible and to magnify them Type of mirror: Purpose: to project portions of light hitting it in many different directions Type of mirror: TOPIC 3 SCIENCE INQUIRY Refraction BLM 3-10 Goal Review how light bends when it travels from one material to another Introduction When light moves from one medium (such as air) to another (such as water), it bends This is called refraction The light bends because it changes speed when it moves between materials that have different densities Answer each question in the space provided 1 The diagrams below illustrate refraction In (a), for example, the light ray travels through the air and enters the glass In (b), the light ray travels up from the water and enters the air For each, diagram, draw the normal line at the point of contact Measure and label the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction Then complete the sentences that follow from the choices in parentheses (a) air to glass The angle in the air is (greater/less) than the angle in the glass The light entering the glass bends (toward/away from) the normal line (b) water to air The angle in the air is (greater/less) than the angle in the water The light entering the water bends (toward/away from) the normal line TOPIC 3 SCIENCE INQUIRY (c) air to water Refraction (continued) BLM 3-10 The angle in the air is (greater/less) than the angle in the water The light entering the air bends (toward/away from) the normal line (d) transparent plastic to air The angle in the air is (greater/less) than the angle in the plastic The light entering the air bends (toward/away from) the normal line 2 Use the terms below to complete the sentences that follow If necessary, you may use a term more than once greater than toward less than away from When light refracts, the angle in the air is always the angle in the other substance Light entering the other substances bends the normal line Light leaving a substance and entering the air bends the normal line TOPICS 4-5 VOCABULARY CHECK Create Your Own Glossary II Goal To reinforce students understanding of the key terms in Topics 4-5 by creating a mini-glossary BLM 3-12 Fill in the blanks below with the definition of each key term Also include the page number where the term appears Place this mini-glossary in your notebook, at the beginning of the Light and Optical Systems unit for your reference Term Page Definition Accommodation Aperture Attitude Blind spot concave Concave lens Convex Convex lens Diaphragm Eyepiece lens Far point Far-sighted Focusses Iris Iris reflex Lens Near point Near-sighted Objective lens Objective mirror Optic nerve Prisms Pupil Reflecting telescope Refracting telescope Retina Shutter TOPIC 4 REINFORCEMENT Functions of an Eye and a Camera BLM 3-15 Goal Reinforce your knowledge of the functions of parts of an eye and parts of a camera Complete the following table to compare an eye with a camera Do not write anything in the shaded boxes For help, review pages 211 and pages 216 to 218 of your textbook Eye Camera Part Function Part Function shutter opens to take a picture retina catches the image clear covering over the eye protective glass lens cover protects the lens iris diaphragm ciliary muscle focusses the image on the retina automatic brightness adjustment focussing ring opens and closes the diaphragm according to brightness of the subject aperture hole through which light enters the camera vitreous humour transmits signals from light receptors in the retina to the brain fluid between the iris and the cornea; keeps the eyeball rigid and refracts light TOPIC 5 REINFORCEMENT Making Things Bigger BLM 3-16 Goal Reinforce your knowledge of mirrors, lenses, and prisms used in light technologies Label the lenses and mirrors in these diagrams as concave, plane, or convex Label the prisms as triangular or rectangular Record your answers at the bottom of the page TOPICS 6-8 VOCABULARY CHECK Create Your Own Glossary III Goal To reinforce students understanding of the key terms in Topics 6-8 by creating a mini-glossary BLM 3-18 Fill in the blanks below with the definition of each key term Also include the page number where the term appears Place this mini-glossary in your notebook, at the beginning of the Light and Optical Systems unit for your reference Term Page Definition Additive primary colours Amplitude coherent Colour blindness Complementary colours Cones Crests troughs Electromagnetic spectrum Frequency Gamma rays Hertz Incoherent Infrared radiation (IR) Laser Microwaves Ozone layer Radar Radiation therapy Radio waves Rods Secondary colours Solar spectrum Spectrum Ultraviolet (UV) radiation Wave model of light Wavelength X-rays TOPIC 6 SKILL BUILDER Additive Primary Colours BLM 3-21 Goal Review what happens when additive primary colours are mixed The diagram below shows three coloured spotlights aimed at a screen Choose appropriate coloured pencils to fill in the colours you would see on the screen Refer to Figure 351 on page 233 of your textbook if you need help DATE: NAME: CLASS: TOPIC 7 Riding the Waves BLM 3-23 SKILL BUILDER Goal Review wave concepts Answer each question in the space provided Refer to pages 238 and 239 of your textbook if you need to review 1 (a) Label the diagram below using the following terms: trough, amplitude, crest, wavelength, rest position (b) How many wavelengths are shown in the diagram? 2 The number of cycles per second is the This is measured in (Hz) 3 Calculate the frequency of a wave that goes up and down 8 times in 4 s 4 (a) Examine the diagram below How many wavelengths apart are the two ducks? (b) How many wavelengths are shown in the diagram? TOPIC 8 REINFORCEMENT Nanometres BLM 3-25 Goal Reinforce your understanding of nanometres Think About It A nanometre is a very small distance Think nine when you hear nano If you start with 10 m, the decimal moves nine places to the left to get to nanometres That is, 1 nm = m, which can be written as 1 x 10-9 m Use the table at the bottom of page 249 in your textbook to help you Study the pattern in the two examples below: 400 nm = 400 x 1 x 10-9 m = 4 x 10-7 m 650 nm = 650 x 1 x 10-9 m = 65 x 10-7 m Follow the pattern to write the wavelengths of the colours of light, in both nm and m (in two forms) 1 red = nm = m = m 2 orange = nm = m = m 3 yellow = nm = m = m 4 green = nm = m = m 5 blue = nm = m = m 6 indigo = nm = m = m 7 violet = nm = m = m TOPIC 8 VOCABULARY CHECK The Electromagnetic Spectrum Goal Demonstrate an understanding of the key terms used in Topic 8 BLM 3-26 Use the clues provided below to complete the horizontal words in the puzzle Then answer the questions about the two vertical words that are hidden in the puzzle Clues Use these clues to discover the horizontal words in the puzzle The number after the clues tells you if the answer is one word or two Note: There are no spaces between the words 1 The ray with the shortest wavelength and the highest energy of all waves in the electromagnetic spectrum (2) 2 Means heat radiation (2) 3 This device uses the reflection of radio waves to determine the distance and location of unseen objects (1) 4 This technology uses gamma rays to destroy cancerous cells (2) 5 This form of oxygen surrounds the Earth (2) 6 Of all radio waves, these have the shortest wavelength and the highest frequency (1) TOPIC 8 VOCABULARY CHECK The Electromagnetic Spectrum (continued) BLM This form of electromagnetic radiation can penetrate substances like skin and muscle It is often used to locate a break in a bone (1) 8 The kind of wavelength (200nm beyond violet light) causes tanning (2) 9 This word stands for light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation (1) 10 Visible light energy and all invisible forms of radiant energy exist on this spectrum (2) Questions 1 What are the hidden vertical words? 2 What does the term mean? 3 Name some uses for this technology
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