Physics IGCSE | Force | Waves

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IGCSE Physics revision Edexcel Syllabus 2016
Transcript  Past Papers 13 December 201614:00  Physics Page 1  Properties of solids: Fixed positions in orderly rows. ã This means that solids cannot flow because the particles cannot move from place to place like liquids and gases. ã Solids cannot be compressed or squash because the particles are packed together and have no space to move into. ã Liquids:Liquids can take the shape of their container because the particles can move around each other. ã Liquids cannot be compressed or squashed because the particles are packed together and have no space to move into. ã Gases:Gases flow and completely fill their container because the particles can move quickly in all directions. ã Gases can be compressed and squashed because there is plenty of space for the particles to move into. ã Kelvin Scale-273 degrees = 0 Kelvin. (Absolute 0)To work out kelvin from Celcius = C-273=K Solids Liquids and Gases Monday, December 12, 20166:17 PM  Physics Page 2  DensityDensity is a measure of how packed a substance is. It tells us how much mass there is per unit volume.Experiment to determine DensityPlace marble on a scale and record its mass. Get a measuring cylinder and fill it with ie. 90 ml of water. Place marble is in water. Subtract the srcinal mass from new for volume. Use equation to find out density. Density (kg/m 3 )= mass ( in kilograms)/volume ( in M 2 )1g/cm=1000kg/m 21 Cm= 21*10 -2 m21 Cm 2 =21* 10 -4 m 2 21 Cm 3 =21*10 -6 m 3 PressurePressure (in N/m 2 )= Force ( in Newtons)/ area (in m 2 )Hydraulics:The force stays the same as it passes from Area 1 (left) to Area 2 (on right)Pressure in Liquids and GasesPressure in liquids act equally in all directions as long as the liquid is not moving. This is the same for gases. The pressure in air is a staggering 100000Pa, but since the pressure inside our bodies are similar, we don’t feel the pressure. The pressure in air is also referred to as 1.0 atmosphere. To calculate pressure in liquids use the following equation: Density and Pressure Monday, December 12, 20168:20 PM  Physics Page 3  Pressure (in Pa) = Height/Depth (in m) x Density (in kg/m 3 ) x Gravitational Field Strength (in N/kg)Or p = hdg  Note that g is usually 10N/kgvExample: Justin Bieber’s (oh my god!) swimming pool has a depth of 3m. What is the total pressure of the swimming pool? Take the gravitational field strength to be 10N/kg and the density of water to be 1kg/m 3 (ignore the swimming pool being chlorinated ‘cause JB’s swimming pool is always clean anyways). p = hdg (the actual equation is p=hpg, but I’m not bothered finding that special p for density) p = 3m x 1kg/m 3 x 10N/kgp = 30Pa The Brownian Motion   Brownian Motion: The continual random movement of microscopic particles. When particles collide into one another, this causes a change in speed and direction of the particles, making them randomly move about. Boyle ’ s LawThis is all summarized into the following equation:Pressure 1 x Volume 1 = Pressure 2 x Volume 2 Or p 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2 Example:Atmospheric pressure is 100kPa. Some air in a sealed container has a volume of 2m 3 at atmospheric pressure. What would be the pressure of the air if you reduced its volume to 0.2m 3 ?100kPa = 100000PaP 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2 100000Pa x 2m 3 = p 2 x 0.2m 3 200000 = 0.2p 2 P 2 = 1000000Pa  = 1000kPa And in words…   Boyle ’ s Law:At a constant temperatureand with a fixed mass of gas, pressure is inversely proportional to volume.Question:How does a gas exert a pressure on the walls of its container?Billions of tiny air particlesmove about in continual random motion. Particle collisions with the walls of the container exerts a force, which gets distributed over the area of the wall of the container, hence, exerting a pressure. Physics Page 4
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