The War of Northern Aggression (to the South)

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The War of Northern Aggression (to the South) A: Slavery B: State s Rights C: Other Reasons (if you say other, you need to describe the reason/reasons) Write your answer on the front page of your packet.
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The War of Northern Aggression (to the South) A: Slavery B: State s Rights C: Other Reasons (if you say other, you need to describe the reason/reasons) Write your answer on the front page of your packet. Frederick Douglass William Lloyd Garrison Prominent speaker for American Anti-Slavery Society Former slave Started antislavery newspaper: North Star Uncompromising abolitionist Constitution supported slavery; had to change the Constitution Sojourner Truth Born: Isabella Baumfree Former slave Martin Delany 1 st African American to graduate from Harvard Medical School Founded newspaper: Mystery Supported colonization in Liberia Harriet Tubman Former slave Conductor on the Underground Railroad Participation of Women Allowed Sarah & Angelina Grimke Sojourner Truth Race African Americans need was urgent Believed whites saw them as inferior Tactics Colonization of Liberia Some whites supported because they didn t want to live near African Americans 14 years: only 1400 moved Change the Constitution North South Abolition was a radical idea Merchants : worried it would sour business between N & S White workers & labor leaders: competition would lower wages Blacks seen as inferior People don t want them living in their neighborhoods Southerners: outraged & defended slavery Postmasters refused to deliver abolitionist literature Southern congressmen: Gag Rule passed 40, ,000 slaves escaped using the Underground Railroad Wanted: Harriett Tubman AKA: Black Moses $40,000 Reward I have, Senators, believed from the first that the subject of slavery would, if not prevented by some timely & effective measure, end in disunion [of the United States] It has reached a point when it can no longer be disguised or denied that the Union is in danger. You have thus had forced upon you the greatest & the gravest question that can ever come under your consideration: How can the Union be preserved? ~John C. Calhoon March 4, 1850 Review: Set line Provided balance in the Senate South: government had no right denying citizens of their property or preventing them from taking their property to territories North: areas should be closed to slavery while they are still territories Wilmot Proviso: slavery shall not exist in any of the territories acquired from Mexico; failed in Congress Henry Clay (Kent) wrote compromise John C. Calhoon (S.C.) opposed Compromise Daniel Webster (Mass) favored Compromise California asks to join as a free state Admission would shift the balance of power in senate Solution: Come up with another compromise Stephen Douglas unbundled the compromise Allowed Congress to vote for each component individually Made it easier to pass Find the 5 provisions of the Compromise of You have 5 minutes! 1. California admitted as a free state 2. People in New Mexico & Utah territories would decide the issue of slavery 3. Sale of slaves in DC abolished (but not slavery) 4. Texas would give up claims to New Mexico for $10 million 5. Fugitive Slave Act : Senator: Illinois Drafted the Kansas Nebraska Act 2 motivations: 1. Wanted Chicago to benefit from western development 2. Wanted to run for president Supported the practice of popular sovereignty Asking the nation to repeal the Missouri Compromise months debate; finally passed Immigrant Aid Society: 1200 free soilers to Kansas Proslavery settlers in Missouri went to Kansas to vote illegally 1855: 2 constitutions & capitals Topeka: Antislavery Lecompton: Proslavery 1856: proslavery southerners looted offices & homes in Lawrence John Brown led a group to a proslavery settlement near Pottawatomie Creek Killed 5 men Looting in Lawrence + Pottawatomie Creek = summer of murderous raids known as Bleeding Kansas Senator Charles Sumner s speech Crime Against Kansas earned him a beating at the hands of Preston Brooks. Whigs fell apart after 1850 Know Nothings (1854) Grew out of the issue of Nativism AKA: The American Party Every American & naturalized Protestant citizen throughout the Union, [should] use his utmost exertions to aid the cause by organizing & freeing the country from that monster [Catholicism] which is only waiting to approach to plant its flag of tyranny, persecution, and oppression among us. The American Party Members: Northerners who were disgusted with the Kansas-Nebraska Act Dedicated to stopping Slave Power, the repeal of the Kansas Nebraska Act & the Fugitive Slave Act 1. Where were most of the textiles & other manufacturing centers located? North or South 2. Where was most of the food grown or produced? North or South 3. Where was most of the population located in 1860? North or South 4. Where were most of the railroads located? North or South 5. Where were most of the lines of communication located? North or South Uncle Tom s Cabin (1852): Harriet Beecher Stowe Cannibals All (1857): George Fitzhugh Illustrated that slavery was opposed to beliefs many Northerners held (importance of women & ideal family) Simon Legree, slaver owner, everything the North feared & despised Slavery could corrupt anyone Presented a picture of slavery in the South Northerners could believe Northern industrialists were no better than cannibals Didn t care about workers pay, living conditions & could easily replace workers Slave holders had a vested interest in their slaves Northerners: US could not be a country of Simon Legrees Slavery would ruin the US South: Represented the true spirit of the American Revolution since Revolutionary leaders had slaves Slave households had order, grace & a sense of liberty Northerners were arrogant & self righteous In a nutshell: made the 2 sides hate each other more Democrats Know Nothings Republicans James Buchannan Millard Fillmore John C. Freemont Supported the Kansas Nebraska Act Support of South & key Northern states Winner Hoped the Supreme Court would deal with the issue of slavery for good Federal government has the right to restrict slavery; Kansas admitted as a free state Strong Northern support 7:2 decision against Scott Effects of decision: 1. Slaves did not have rights to sue in court 2. Enslaved people could not win freedom by living in a free territory or state 3. Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional & all territories were open to slavery Proslavery group writes a constitution: Lecompton Constitution Most in Kansas were anti-slavery Buchanan supported Lecompton Constitution Constitution defeated: Aug Kansas remained a territory where slavery was legal A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave & half free. I do no expect the Union to be dissolved I do not except the house to fall but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. -Abraham Lincoln June 1858 Illinois deeply divided over slavery 7 debates on the issue of slavery in the territories Who would YOU vote for? Why? Stephen Douglas (D) White Americans were superior to African Americans Tolerated slavery Supported popular sovereignty WINNER Abraham Lincoln (R) Shared Douglas views regarding African Americans Majority should not have the power to deny a minority of their rights Did not believe the federal government had to power to forbid slavery Slavery was wrong; an issue of morals Attacked a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia 21 men (5 African Americans) Plan: give weapons to enslaved people so they could rebel Surrendered to Col. Robert E. Lee Brown: guilty of treason & to be hung Southern (D) Moderate Southern (Constitutional Union) Northern (D) Northern (R) John C. Breckinridge John Bell Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln Committed to an aggressive policy of expanding slavery in the territories. NC, AR, DE, MD, TX, LA, MS, AL, FL, GA & SC Slaveholder Supported popular sovereignty Against slavery in the territories TN, KY & VA NJ (split) & MO Every free state except NJ (split) On the ballot in the South On the ballot in the North Lincoln won with out 1 southern electoral vote; 39% of popular vote; 180 majority electoral college votes Southerners outraged Planters & proslavery called for the South to secede Secessionists argued: states joined voluntarily & could choose to leave Lower South Secedes & forms the Confederate Sates of America & elected Jefferson Davis President Sen. John Crittenden (Kent): plan would recognize slavery south of 36 30; Lincoln: NO Horace Greeley: let the seceding states go peacefully Northern businessmen: force the states to return Succession wrong Committed to preventing the expansion of slavery Duty to enforce the laws of the US We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield & patriot grave to every living heart will yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. Abraham Lincoln 1 st Inaugural Address & plea to the South Federal troops occupied Lincoln needed to resupply Symbol of the Union he swore to preserve Fighting = responsible for starting a war Abandoning = acknowledging the authority of the Confederate government Confederate Pres ordered Gen PGT Beauregard to demand Sumter s surrender Anderson: NO April 12, 1861: Beauregard opened fire; Anderson surrendered Lincoln had no choice but to respond Asked for volunteers South = act of war 4 border states = uncommitted North/Union 2x railroad tracks & factories (21,700: 9000 miles; 110,000: 20,600) Balanced economy: farming & industry Financially: better off Already functioning government Existing army & navy 2/3 of nation s population (21.5 million: 9 million) South/Confederacy 7 of 8 military colleges were in the South Most officers sided with the Confederacy Only needed to defend borders & not initiate attacks Soldiers were eager to fight: a struggle for their way of life North Lincoln orders a blockade of seceded states Troops & gunboats to gain control of the Mississippi Cut the Confederacy in 2; the Anaconda Plan Seize the capitol: Richmond, Virginia South Prepare & wait War of attrition Stop exporting cotton to Europe New bullet shaped ammo Rifling Shells Canister South: food shortages = food riots labor shortages desertions women filled job high taxes to pay for the war massive inflation smuggling North: industrial boom women filled jobs cheaply made products = more profits for businesses decline in standard of living = labor unrest due to low wages income tax instituted inflation Slaves: greater freedom Able to resist slavery Became southern soldiers Sabotaged plantations Worked less than before Male slaves seized for military labor States worked against draft officials Asked Europe for help No recognition Britain: ports used for privateers France: would not support Confederacy w/o Britain persuade people to sacrifice personal interests for the common good Build loyalty to the new government Fewer resources Lee called for a draft 3 yr service White men 18 35; later 45 then 50 Farmers had to contribute 1/10 of produce Taxed income to pay for war Had to convince citizens that saving the Union was worth the loss Britain: threatened invasion after 2 Confed representatives taken off a British ship Lincoln - $19 billion from Britain for compensation Pacific Railroad Act Homestead Act Tariffs $$ to War Federal income tax: 3 5% Internal Revenue Act: tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine & newspaper ads Northern draft $300 buy your way out Copperheads: Democrats against the war Lincoln: Army shut down opposition newspapers Disloyal legislative members arrested Kent: martial law Suspended writ of habeas corpus Lincoln opposed slavery; lacked power to abolish Ending slavery = strategy to end war 1/1/63: Emancipation Proclamation Slaves in areas of rebellion are free Announcement = Democrats made gains in election of 1862 Union Gen. Benjamin Butler: seize enemy s property contraband July 1862: Lincoln allows African Americans to join the military 65: 180,000 ; +1/2 were former slaves July 1863: Massachusetts 54 th Infantry under command of Robert Gould Shaw led attack on Ft. Wagner Andersonville: most notorious 35,000 men on 26 acres 100 died a day 1:4 soldiers died from disease Dysentery, typhoid, malaria, pneumonia 1:5 died from wounds Clara Barton angel of the battlefield : found the American Red Cross Ft. Sumter Battle Casualties Commanders Victory Significance 1 st Battle of Bull Run U: 2900 C: -200 Shiloh U: +13,000 C: ~11,000 Antietam U: +12,000 C: ~14,000 Fredericksburg U: 13,000 C: 5000 Gettysburg U: +23,000 C: +28,000 Vicksburg Atlanta C: Beauregard U: Anderson U:McDowell C: Beauregard, Thomas & Stonewall Jackson U: Grant & Buell C: Johnson U: McClellan C: Lee U: Burnside C: Lee U: Meade, Chamderlain C: Lee, Longstreet, Picket U: Grant C: Pemberton U: Sherman C: Hood Confed Union Union Union Confed Union Union Union Opening shots of Civil War 1 st major battle Bloodiest single battle Bloodiest DAY of the Civil War Burnside s actions led to the massacre of his men Bloodiest battle Confed surrendered; Union controls Mississippi R. Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground 9/19/ minute speech 15,000 people gathered to hear Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Problems Radical Republicans: angered Lincoln vetoes Wade-Davis Bill Supported John C. Fremont Democrats George McClellan Capture of Atlanta = support for Lincoln = 212 of 233 electoral votes Ratified December 18, 1865 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction Lincoln: slavery once divided a nation, let s begin to heal wounds Sherman moves North Confed: -35,000 starving men in Richmond Grant blocked Lee s moves April 9: Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House Group led by John Wilkes Booth April 14, 1865: shot Lincoln in the head at Ford s Theater 14 days for the funeral train to travel from DC to Springfield, IL
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