Underground Storage of Energy Carriers Brine and Salt Extraction | Natural Gas Storage

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Underfround storage of Energy
  UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF ENERGY CARRIERS BRINE AND SALT EXTRACTION  Caverns in a salt dome(GHG project in Empelde near Hannover)Cover:Top left: Nüttermoor natural gas cavern storage (EWE ENERGIE AG)Top right: Underground natural gas storage in a porous formationBottom left: Reckrod natural gas cavern storage (Gas-Union GmbH)Bottom right: Brine/Salt production Pimai/Thailand (PSC) CavernsSalt domeCavern boreholeProduction stringOperations plant Well pad   2 Caverns  KBB UT office, HannoverKBB UT receptionOffice meeting  3Back in 1916, the Reichs Patent Office in Berlin issued a patent on “The storage of crude oils and associated hydro-carbons” in cavities in rock salt. However, the idea only really became practicable on a large scale around 1950.Solution mining technology has since been developed and perfected over the years, resulting in the planning and construction of numerous salt cavern storages for liquid as well as gaseous hydrocarbons in many parts of the world. At the same time, technologies for storages in other rock formations – rock caverns and porous formation storages – have also been further developed and implemented world-wide for the storage of oil, petroleum products and gas.The rise in demand for fossil fuels, and in particular, the necessity to smooth out short term and seasonal fluctua-tions in demand, as well as safeguarding energy supplies in general (e.g. strategic reserves) have all contributed to the demand for increasingly large storages. North America and Western Europe led the way, and now many countries primarily in Asia and South America are also considering the construction of underground storages – in particular for LPG and natural gas.Compared to conventional surface storages, underground storages offer significant advantages, including much cheap-er capex and opex, greater operational safety, and high levels of environmental compatibility. KBB boasts 40 years experience in underground storage and brine production, and made a major contribution to the development and implementation of new technologies. Around 175 storage and brine projects were successfully realised with KBB's active and professional involvement.The artist‘s impressions in this brochure clearly show the vari-ous types and sizes of these underground storage facilities, and show them in relation to the surrounding geology, and their configuration, and their surface facilities.As one of the leading engineering consultants in this field, KBB has a large portfolio of reference projects in which it was either directly involved or represented by former subsidiaries in Germany and the USA. These projects include the world’s largest strategic oil reserves in Germany and the USA, as well as some of the largest salt cavern storages op-erated for the seasonal storage of natural gas.November 2004 saw the activities of Kavernen-Bau und Betriebs-GmbH – especially the underground engineering – taken over by KBB Underground Technologies GmbH (KBB UT), but with no change in its location in Hannover. KBB UT works very closely with DEEP. Underground Engineering in Bad Zwischenahn.KBB UT and DEEP. have a total workforce of around 150. All of the activities carried out by both companies are strictly controlled by occupational health and safety measures, as well as continuous professional training. C  ompany P  rofile   1. Multiple cavern pad  2. Drill bit 3. Pipe store4. KBB UT construction  supervision5. Gas installations6. Coiled tubing7. Gas cavern head 8. Oil cavern head  9. Gas compressor 10. Control room11. Drilling12. Salt core13. Salt core in transmitted light 14. Brine analysis15. Pressure test Captions: ( Projects IVG Etzel, EWE Huntorf, GHG Empelde, labs TU Clausthal and DEEP.)
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